Universiteit Leiden

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Anna-Alexandra Marhold

Assistant Professor

Mr.dr. A.A. Marhold
+31 71 527 3350

Anna Marhold is Assistant Professor at the Institute of Public Law and the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies at Leiden University. Her specialization is international economic law, with a particular focus on international trade law at the intersection of energy and environmental regulation.

More information about Anna-Alexandra Marhold

Education and Career

Anna Marhold obtained her PhD in Law at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence (2016). In 2015, she was a Marie Curie Early Stage Research Fellow at the Graduate Institute in Geneva, Switzerland, in the framework of DISSETTLE (Dispute Settlement in Trade: Training in Law and Economics). In 2013-2014, Anna was a recipient of the EU-US Fulbright-Schuman Grant and a visiting scholar at NYU School of Law, USA. She is a graduate in Law (LLB, LLM), specializing in international trade and investment law, and in Russian (BA, MA) from the University of Amsterdam (UvA). Prior to joining Leiden in 2019, Anna was Assistant Professor at the Tilburg Law and Economics Centre (TILEC). During her studies, Anna was a Blue Book Trainee at the European External Action Service (EEAS) EU Delegation in Armenia and Assistant Attaché at the Dutch Permanent Mission to the United Nations Headquarters in New York. She speaks Dutch, English, Czech and Russian.

Anna has published widely in the field of international economic, trade and energy law and EU external trade relations. Her monograph titled Energy in International Trade Law: Concepts, Regulation and Changing Markets (Cambridge University Press, 2021) examines energy regulation in international trade law against the backdrop of energy markets that have radically changed over the past decades.

She is a member of the Executive Council of the Society for International Economic Law (SIEL) and the Coordinating Committee of the European Society of International Law (ESIL) Interest Group on International Economic Law, as well as a member of the Platform on International Energy Governance.

Research Areas and Interests

Anna is particularly interested in the ongoing crisis in international trade law, security interests and other non-strictly trade-related objectives in international economic law; EU Energy Policy and its interaction with World Trade Organization (WTO) obligations; energy and environmental regulation in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs); carbon border adjustment mechanisms and the sustainable energy transition; the future of the Energy Charter Treaty; the OPEC cartel; law and economics approaches to trade and energy regulation; access to supplies and natural resources; public goods; regulation of network industries; squaring energy security with sustainable development and consumer protection; regulation of the transit of energy; the Energy Community Treaty and European external energy relations, including the regulation of gas pipelines with the European Neighborhood.

Educational Activities

At Leiden, Anna Marhold teaches Public International Law-related subjects on both Bachelor’s and Master’s level. She convenes courses in International Trade Law in the International Dispute Settlement and Arbitration (IDSA) Advanced LL.M and in the Duke-Leiden Institute in Global and Transnational Law.

Anna is also a Visiting Professor at Vermont Law School (USA), where she teaches on global and comparative energy and environmental law, and a recurring lecturer at the Clingendael Netherlands Institute of International Relations, inter alia in the framework of the WTO – The Netherlands Trainee Programme (NTP).

Assistant Professor

  • Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid
  • Instituut voor Publiekrecht
  • Grotius Centre for Intern Legal Studies

Work address

Kamerlingh Onnes Building
Steenschuur 25
2311 ES Leiden
Room number C1.13




  • The Clingendael Institute Guest Lecturer
  • Vermont Law School (USA) Visiting Adjunct Professor
  • Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken - Commissie Vrede en Veiligheid Lid
  • World Trade Institute (WTI) Universität Bern Visiting Faculty
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