Physics (MSc)

# Admission requirements

To enter the master’s programme in Physics at Leiden University, applicants have to satisfy the following criteria.

Automatic admission for any applicant with a:

- Bachelor degree in Physics from Leiden University
- Bachelor degree in Physics from any Dutch University provided that:
- The BSc degree has been obtained within the past two year
- The BSc degree has been completed within five year
- The average grade for all BSc courses is ≥ 7.0 according to the Dutch grading system (US B+ or higher, US GPA 3.3 or higher)
- The grade for BSc research project is ≥ 7.0 according to the Dutch grading system (US B+ or higher, US GPA 3.3 or higher)

Only exceptionally performing candidates are admitted to the MSc in Theoretical Physics and Physics and Cosmology programmes. The specialisation ‘Cosmology’ also requires knowledge of ‘Physics of Elementary Particles’ at undergraduate level

Applicants with a Bachelor degree from a HBO Technische Natuurkunde of the Netherlands will be admitted to the programme upon completion of a pre-master's programme agreed with the Study Advisor of the Physics Programme of the University of Leiden and on the basis of their performance.

Only exceptionally performing candidates are admitted to the MSc in Theoretical Physics and Physics and Cosmology programmes. The specialisation ‘Cosmology’ also requires knowledge of ‘Physics of Elementary Particles’ at undergraduate level

Applicants with a Bachelor degree in Physics from any recognized university anywhere in the world will be considered based on the study programme*, their grades and their motivation.

Only exceptionally performing candidates are admitted to the MSc in Theoretical Physics and Physics and Cosmology programmes. The specialisation ‘Cosmology’ also requires knowledge of ‘Physics of Elementary Particles’ at undergraduate level

* A*n appropriate study program should cover most of the following:*

**Math:**

- Multivariate calculus, ordinary and partial differential equations, complex analysis, Fourier transforms, special functions
- Real and Complex vector spaces, linear transformations, orthonormal bases, basis transformations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, spectral methods

**Classical Mechanics:**

- Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.

**Special Theory of Relativity**

**Electromagnetism:**

Electrical and magnetic fields, Maxwell’s equations; wave theory of light, propagation of EM waves in media.

**Statistical Physics:**

Thermal equilibrium and equipartition theorem; entropy and microcanonical ensemble, free energy, canonical ensemble, partition functions, Maxwell relations; ideal gases, elasticity, Hooke’s law; magnetization and magnetic susceptibility; Ising model; mean-field solution; macrocanonical ensemble, Grand free energy.

**Quantum Mechanics**:

Schrödinger equation, 1D stationary states, Hilbert space, 3D spherically symmetric systems, H atom, angular momentum, spin; including probability functions, operators, Dirac notation, eigenvalue problem; many particle systems; H-like atoms, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics; blackbody radiation; fine structure, Zeeman and Stark effects; time dependent perturbation theory; quantum theory of radiation (Einstein coefficients).

Otherwise exceptional candidates without an adequate degree in Physics who have in other ways covered the appropriate material* in a demonstrable way (i.e., having taken exams) will be evaluated on an individual basis.

Only exceptionally performing candidates are admitted to the MSc in Theoretical Physics and Physics and Cosmology programmes. The specialisation ‘Cosmology’ also requires knowledge of ‘Physics of Elementary Particles’ at undergraduate level.

* A*n appropriate study program should cover most of the following:*

**Math:**

- Multivariate calculus, ordinary and partial differential equations, complex analysis, Fourier transforms, special functions
- Real and Complex vector spaces, linear transformations, orthonormal bases, basis transformations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, spectral methods

**Classical Mechanics:**

- Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.

**Special Theory of Relativity**

**Electromagnetism:**

Electrical and magnetic fields, Maxwell’s equations; wave theory of light, propagation of EM waves in media.

**Statistical Physics:**

Thermal equilibrium and equipartition theorem; entropy and microcanonical ensemble, free energy, canonical ensemble, partition functions, Maxwell relations; ideal gases, elasticity, Hooke’s law; magnetization and magnetic susceptibility; Ising model; mean-field solution; macrocanonical ensemble, Grand free energy.

**Quantum Mechanics**:

Schrödinger equation, 1D stationary states, Hilbert space, 3D spherically symmetric systems, H atom, angular momentum, spin; including probability functions, operators, Dirac notation, eigenvalue problem; many particle systems; H-like atoms, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics; blackbody radiation; fine structure, Zeeman and Stark effects; time dependent perturbation theory; quantum theory of radiation (Einstein coefficients).

## Language requirements

Copy of English proficiency certificate evidenced by appropriate language test.

- IELTS: minimum 6.5
- TOEFL: internet based 90
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE), minimum grade C

Please note: This requirement does not apply if you have completed your education in Canada, USA, UK, Ireland, New Zealand or Australia, or have an International Baccalaureate or a Dutch bachelor’s diploma.

The Education specialisation programme is taught in Dutch. All applicants that have not achieved a Secondary Education qualification in the Netherlands, have to demonstrate their Dutch communication skills. The level of Dutch is assessed through an advanced Dutch language exam. For more information about the exam: Admission Exam TUL Advanced. For the speaking (fluency) part of the exam, at least a 7.5 must be achieved.