Universiteit Leiden

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Air and Space Law (Advanced LL.M.)

Admission requirements

To be eligible for Air and Space Law at Leiden University, you must meet the following admission requirements.

>> Go to the next step: Check the application deadlines

The following requirements apply: 

  • IELTS Academic: 7.0 overall, with at least 6.0 for the speaking, listening and reading components and at least 6.5 for the writing component.
    • We do not accept IELTS Academic online.
    • We do not accept IELTS General Training or IELTS Indicator.
  • TOEFL internet based: 100 overall, with at least 20 for the speaking, listening and reading component and at least 22 for the writing component. 
    • We are not able to accept The TOEFL IBT Home Edition™, except in the following situations only:
      You took the test before 1 Sept 2022 (and it is no more than two years old) or you are unable to take an in-person test on location because test centres are inaccessible or closed due to unsafe conditions in the relevant country.
    • We do not accept the following types of test: TOEFL My Best™ scores (multiple test scores combined), TOEFL Essentials™  or institutional tests such as ITP.
  • Cambridge English Exam C2 Proficiency, with at least 169 for the speaking, listening and reading components and at least 176 for the writing component.

Please note: English test results may not be more than two years old.

You do not have to submit an English proficiency test if you completed your education in the USA, UK, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, Canada (except French-taught programmes in Canada) Singapore, South-Africa or Malta, or if you obtained an English-taught International Baccalaureate™, or if you completed an English-taught bachelor's degree at a Dutch research university.

Note: exemptions are not issued for Dutch pre-university (VWO) diplomas. 

For detailed information, including exemption criteria and submission methods, refer to the English language proficiency information sheet

Meeting the admission requirements does not necessarily guarantee an admission offer. Students are selected on the basis of overall merit. 

  • Sufficient knowledge of European law and international organisations. Applicants whose legal studies did not include these subject areas may be admitted provided they take the compulsory supplementary courses offered.
  • Some prior knowledge of air and space law is certainly an asset, but is not compulsory.
  • A keen interest in aviation and space activities and the legal implications thereof, illustrated by a letter of motivation and, for example, past experience related to the subject, such as professional experience, publications or conference papers.
  • Documented evidence of relevant (work) experience, i.e. employment or internship at a law firm or voluntary work, illustrated by way of a detailed curriculum vitae.
  • Two letters of recommendation attesting to good academic and/or professional ability. At least one letter must be written by an academic staff member, for example a lecturer or academic supervisor.
  • Blended learning candidates only: at least five years of professional experience in the field of air and/or space activities, as the programme is specifically designed for experienced professionals.
  • An interview may be part of the selection process.

The following diploma requirements apply for this programme:

  • A full degree in law offering access to legal practice in the country where it was obtained, or an equivalent degree from a recognised university/law school;
  • or a degree at an equivalent level in a relevant discipline with a sufficient background in law; and
  • evidence of excellent academic performance.

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