Air and Space Law (Advanced LL.M.)
To be eligible for Air and Space Law at Leiden University, you must meet the following admission requirements.
The following diploma requirements apply for this programme:
- A full degree in law offering access to legal practice in the country where it was obtained, or an equivalent degree from a recognised university/law school;
- or a degree at an equivalent level in a relevant discipline with a sufficient background in law; and
- evidence of excellent academic performance.
Overall score requirements
Proven English language proficiency, demonstrated by way of a TOEFL test (overall score of 100 Internet-based), or IELTS test (overall score of 7.0), or Cambridge English Proficiency certificate (CPE), evidenced by an appropriate test, occasionally complemented by a telephone interview.
Band score requirements
In addition to the above-mentioned overall English test scores, the following minimum band score requirements apply:
Programme starting February 2020:
- Minimum band score of IELTS 6.0 (TOEFL 20) for all elements, i.e. speaking, listening, reading and writing.
For programme starting September 2020:
- Minimum band score of IELTS 6.0 (TOEFL 20) for speaking, listening and reading; and minimum band score of IELTS 6.5 (TOEFL 22) for writing.
These requirements do not apply if you have:
- completed your education in Canada (except Quebec), USA, UK, Ireland, New Zealand or Australia, or
- an International Baccalaureate.
Presessional English Course
Applicants who submit a slightly insufficient English test result may be offered admission to a one month pre-sessional English course prior to entry, at the discretion of the admission board. Please refer to the Pre-sessional English course information sheet for further details.
Leiden University currently accepts the iBT TOEFL Special Home Edition. You can check if this online English proficiency test is accessible for you on the ETS website.
- Sufficient knowledge of European law and international organisations. Applicants whose legal studies did not include these subject areas may be admitted provided they take the compulsory supplementary courses offered.
- Some prior knowledge of air and space law is certainly an asset, but is not compulsory.
- A keen interest in aviation and space activities and the legal implications thereof, illustrated by a letter of motivation and, for example, past experience related to the subject, such as professional experience, publications or conference papers.
- Documented evidence of relevant (work) experience, i.e. employment or internship at a law firm or voluntary work, illustrated by way of a detailed curriculum vitae.
- Two letters of recommendation attesting to good academic and/or professional ability. At least one letter must be written by an academic staff member, for example a lecturer or academic supervisor.
- Blended learning candidates only: at least five years of professional experience in the field of air and/or space activities, as the programme is specifically designed for experienced professionals.
Meeting the admission requirements does not necessarily guarantee an admission offer. Students are selected on the basis of overall merit.