Promotor: G.R. de Snoo, Co-promotores: M.G. Vijver, J.P.M. Vink
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Many surface waters in The Netherlands do not comply with environmental quality standards for metals. This doesn’t mean that the aquatic ecosystem is actually affected. Toxic effects of metals on aquatic life (for example fish, crustaceans and algae) are often higher in test with “standard” water, than in natural surface water. This implies that environmental quality standards, which are derived from tests with standard water, may be stricter than necessary to protect aquatic life. As a result, unnecessary and ineffective measures aiming to reduce emissions may be taken.