Universiteit Leiden

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Proefschrift

Biomimetic Copper Catalysts for the Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Human civilization consumes a huge amount of fossil fuels, which has resulted in an
atmospheric CO2 level which has not been higher in over 800 millennia.

Auteur
Smits, N.W.G.
Datum
26 november 2020
Links
Thesis in Leiden Repository

Human civilization consumes a huge amount of fossil fuels, which has resulted in an atmospheric CO2 level which has not been higher in over 800 millennia.1 Even though the CO2 level is known to show large fluctuations during glacial-interglacial cycles, it did not surpass 300 ppm until 1950. Since then, the CO2 level has increased to 410 ppm. This high CO2 level has resulted in a global temperature rise and therefore a rise in the sea level and drastic climate changes on a global scale. 2-3 To add to this dramatic outlook for the future of the earth, the global energy demand is expected to rise. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has predicted that an increase in the global population together with a massive migration of people from the lower to the middle economic class in current economically developing countries will result in a 55% increase in the global electricity demand in 2040 compared to 2020. 4

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