Taxonomy, systematics, and biogeography of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae)
Promotor: Prof.dr. P.C. van Welzen
- B. Chantarasuwan
- 03 september 2014
- Thesis in Leiden Repository
Five research methods were used in Taxonomy, Systematics, and Biogeography of Ficus subsection Urostigma(Moraceae); Morphological characters, leaf anatomy, pollen morphology, molecular phylogeny, and historical biogeography. Seven topics are the result: 1) A revision was made based on morphology in which 27 species are recognized, but which also showed that morphology alone cannot solve all problems because of variation within the species. 2) Leaf anatomy displayed less variation in characters and anatomical characters proved to be useful for the classification of Ficus, especially in combination with morphology. 3) Pollen morphology appeared to be similar for all species and the characters can merely be used for generic recognition. 4) A new classification for subsection Urostigma is proposed in which the circumscription of the subsection and the species is the result of combining molecular phylogenetic information with morphology and leaf anatomy. 5) Ficus cornelisiana, a new species from Sino-Himalayan, was reported based on morphological and leaf anatomical evidence. 6) The historical biogeography was studied by using molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction. 7) The use of some Thai species within subsect. Urostigma is reported, six of them are used as food, as ornamental, or the uses are related to religion or sacred purposes.