Erik de Maaker
Erik de Maaker conducts research on appreciations of place and relatedness, primarily (but not only) in South Asia. He works on themes such as religion, ethnicity, relatedness, migration, environment, knowledge, heritage, materiality, visuality, personhood and the life cycle. He has published extensively on the uplands of eastern South Asia, focussing on the challenges people face with respect to cultural change and rapid economic development. He has been awarded a variety of grants by the Leiden profile area Asian Modernities and Transitions, while he has also won several grants from NWO. At the moment, he is co-leading a multi-national cooperative research project on landscape, environment and climate change in the eastern Himalayas, in partnership with the Himalayan University Consortium and ICIMOD.
Research by Erik de Maaker
I am currently working towards the completion of a monograph which explores relatedness, resources and religion in the uplands of Northeast India (enabled by an AMT teaching replacement grant, 34k€). Contesting one-dimensional and ahistorical imaginations of indigeneity and tradition, the book argues that the authenticity attributed to customs imbues it with the authority to facilitate and generate social and economic transformations, which also implies the adaptation, reformulation and thus ‘reworking’ of cultural ideas and practices. The book is based on nearly two decades of ethnographic engagement with the Garo ethnic community of North East India.
I am also leading a research project, together with dr. Dan Smyer Yü (Yunnan University, Kunming), which explores changing readings of land and landscape in the broader trans-Himalayan region (funded by the Himalayan Universities Consortium, 37kU$). This project, with partners in Bhutan, Nepal, India and China, ties in with my interest in land, land relations, and the environment, and how its access is shared between extra-human entities, local claim holders and the state. Research in the periphery of Asia’s post-colonial states has made me aware of the growing importance of borders, and I am one of the founding members of the network that every two years, with support of the IIAS, organizes the high profile Asian Borderlands conferences (Asian Borderlands Research Network).
In addition, together with dr. Sanjukta Sunderason (LIAS), I have over the last 4 years conducted research on place making and displacement in South Asia (Postcolonial Displacements, 150k€). In this project I explore narratives, trajectories and interpretations of movement with reference to origin, connectedness, belonging, and other claims to ‘soil’ in South Asia’s eastern borderlands. Notably, I am focusing on narratives of origin, migration and belonging, and how these take on new and hitherto unheard meanings in contexts in which ethnicity and indigeneity serve to formulate claims to scarce resources, political power, and being with or against the state. This research project has also resulted in the initiation of a new interdisciplinary Bachelor course, which is now part of the curricula of the BSc Anthropology and Sociology, as well as South and Southeast Asian studies (‘Displacement and Development: Anthropological Perspectives on South Asia’).
My fascination with ‘place making’ and ‘place attachment’ also translates into research being conducted in close cooperation with Leiden municipality (20k€). Focusing notably on the Leiden Slaaghwijk, a neighbourhood characterized by high cultural diversity and significant economic deprivation, I have guided research conducted by a number of Master students on the relationship of migrant organizations to Leiden municipality, experiences of social exclusion of second or third generation migrant youth and so on. Whereas the regional contexts of these Asia and Netherlands based research ‘fields’ are radically different, the two do generate a comparative perspective that can help to challenge taken for granted assumptions regarding understandings of place.
The material and performative dimensions of culture have long been central to my research. This includes the redefinition and re-interpretation of ‘traditional’ cultural ideas and practices (‘heritage’), and their growing importance in terms of ethnicity, indigeneity and nationalism. This fits in with the agenda of the Heritage and Identity track of the LDE Centre for Global Heritage and Development, of which I am one of the ‘front runners’. In this capacity I work, among others, with scholars of the Delft Technical University on the relevance of heritage for the SDGs.
I have conducted my PhD research with an individual 4 year research grant, awarded by NWO. My PhD research focused on the relevance of mortuary practices for the negotiation of social relationships in upland South Asia (PhD thesis: ‘Negotiating Life: Garo Death Rituals and the Transformation of Society’, Leiden University, 2006). Subsequently, I was a postdoctoral research fellow at the Nijmegen Radboud University in the NWO-funded ‘Refiguring Death Rites’ research project led by Prof. Eric Venbrux. From 2007 onwards I have been employed as Assistant Professor of Cultural Anthropology and Development Sociology at the University of Leiden.
I have been trained as a Visual Anthropologist by dr. Dirk Nijland and the late Steef Meyknecht (in the Leiden tradition of ‘Ethnocommunication’), and the use of video as a research tool continues to be central to any ethnographic research I conduct. Between 2007 and 2014 I have led the Visual Anthropology section at Leiden CA/DS, charting and then realizing the upgrading of the earlier Bachelor level methods courses to a Master level methodological track. I have made ethnographic DVDs, as well as ethnographic films (one of which received the Award for Excellence of the American Anthropological Association), and continue to be committed to the exploration of ways in which communication through images and sound can convey anthropological knowledge.
- Award for Excellence, Society for Visual Anthropology, American Anthropological Association (1998)
- 2019: AMT2 Manuscript: finishing grant
- 2018: HUC/ICIMOD Focus grant ‘Landscape & Climate Change
- 2017: NWO-ICSSR India-Netherlands Scholarship Exchange
- 2015: Leiden research profile Asian Modernities en Traditions (AMT) ‘Large Grant’ of €150.000, for the research project ‘Postcolonial Displacements: Migration, Narratives and Place-Making in South Asia.’
- 2013: Marginal Lands? The Commodification and Re-appreciation of Upland Agriculture in the Borderlands of Northeast India
- 1999-2004: Individual Project Grant, Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (NWO/WOTRO)
- 1999-2001: Cultural Exchange Scholarship, Indian Council for Cultural Relations
- Academia.edu: Erik de Maaker
- Leiden Anthopology Blog: Erik de Maaker
- LinkedIn: Erik de Maaker
- Postcolonial Displacements
- Wenlan Wang, 'Mediation as Core: an anthropological study in Thai village Buddhism ritual materials' (with Prof.Dr. M.F. Herzfeld)
- Idrees Kanth MA, 'National conseciousness and Public discourse in Twentieth century Kashmir' (with Prof. N.K. Wickramasinghe, LIAS). PhD successfully defended May 7th, 2019.
- Tim van den Meerendonk, 'Weather Insurance and the Morality of Death: An Ethnography of Farmer Suicide and financialisation of the Weather in India' (with Dr. Erik Bähre and Prof. Cristina Grasseni).
- Andrea Ragragio, 'Bodies and Images of Worlds: the development and persistence of Pantaron Manobo tattooing' (with Prof. Pieter ter Keurs).
- Rosetti I., Naldini S. & Maaker E. de (2020), Exploring heritage as culture: disciplines, theories, method. In: Pottgiesser, U.; Fatoric, S.; Hein, C.; Maaker. E. de; Roders, A.P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the LDE Heritage Conference. Delft: TU Delft Open. 533-535.
- Maaker E. de (2020), From Marginal Zone to Borderland? Ethnographies, Histories and Politics in North East India. In: Sarkar, S.; Modwell, N.Y. (Eds.) Oral Traditions, Continuities and Transformations in Northeast India and Beyond. New Delhi: Routledge. 188.
- Pottgiesser U., Fatoric S., Hein C., Maaker E. de & Roders A.P. (2020), LDE heritage conference on heritage and the sustainable development goals: proceedings. Delft: TU Delft Open.
- Maaker E. de (2017), On the Nature of Indigenous Land: Ownership, Access and Farming in upland Northeast India. In: Uddin, N.; Gerharz, E.; Chakkarath, P. (Eds.) Indigeneity on the Move: Varying Manifestations of a Contested Concept. New York: Berghahn. 29-48.
- Maaker, E. de (2020), Borderland narratives [Markets, Ethics and Agency: Changing Land Utilization and Social Transformation in the Uplands of Northeast India] (translation: Maaker E. de & Janowski M.), Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 9(2): 151-160.
- Maaker, E. de (2020), Unequal land relations in North East India: custom, gender and the market [Markets, Ethics and Agency: Changing Land Utilization and Social Transformation in the Uplands of Northeast India] (translation: Maaker E. de & Tula M.). Guwahati: North Eastern Social Research Centre .
- Maaker E. de (2020), Rites of Inheritance: Assessing Gifts, Mothers, and Marriages. In: Marak, Q.; Chaudhury, S. (Eds.) Cultural Heritage of Meghalaya. Abingdon: Routledge. 329-350.
- Maaker E. de & Tooker D. (2020), Agrarian Change in Zomia, special issue of Asian Ethnology Member of editorial staff Asian Ethnology 79(2).
- Maaker E. de & Tula M. (2020), Introduction: reinterpreting customary land relationships. In: Maaker, E. de; Tula, M. (Eds.) Unequal Land Relations in North East India: Custom, Gender and the Market. Guwahati: North Eastern Social Research Centre. 1-30.
- Janowski M. & Maaker E. de (2020), Special issue of the Journal South East Asian Studies on 'Stories across Borders: Myths of Origin and their Contestation in the Borderlands of Southeast Asia', guest edited by Monica Janowski and Erik de Maaker. Member of editorial staff Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 9(2).
- Maaker, E. de (2020), Who owns the hills? Ownership, inequality, and communal sharing in the borderlands of India [Markets, Ethics and Agency: Changing Land Utilization and Social Transformation in the Uplands of Northeast India] (translation: Maaker E. de.), Asian Ethnology 79(2): 359-377.
- Maaker E. de (2020), Cultural records, stereotypes, and the conflation of past and present in the creation of Garo documentary films . In: Schleiter, M.; Maaker, E. de; De Eds, E. (Eds.) Media, Indigeneity and Nation in South Asia. Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge. 196-212.
- Schleiter M. & Maaker E. de (2020), Media, indigeneity and nation in South Asia. Oxon: Routledge.
- Maaker, E. de (2019), Screening indigeneity and nation [Markets, Ethics and Agency: Changing Land Utilization and Social Transformation in the Uplands of Northeast India] (translation: Maaker E. de & Schleiter M. ). In: Schleiter, M.; Maaker, E. de (Eds.) Media, Indigeneity and Nation in South Asia. Media, Culture and Social Change in Asia Abingdon: Routledge. 1-25.
- De Maaker E. (2019), Garo: The Garo Ethnic Community. In: Carrin, M.; Boivin, M.; Toffin, G.; Hockings,, P.; Rousseleau, R.; Subba,T.; Lambs-Tyche, H.; (Eds.) Brill’s Encyclopedia of the Religions of the Indigenous People of South Asia Online.: Brill.
- De Maaker E. & Samuels A. (2019), Anthropologies of and with Asia, at Leiden University. Leiden Anthropology Blog [blog entry].
- Maaker, E.de (2019), Nokdangko Man·rikani: Gamrangko Sualani, Ma.gipa Ong.rikani aro Bia Ka.anirang [Markets, Ethics and Agency: Changing Land Utilization and Social Transformation in the Uplands of Northeast India] (translation: Maaker E. de.). Tura: Tua Book Room.
- De Maaker E. (2015), Ambiguous Mortal Remains, Substitute Bodies, and other Materializations of the Dead among the Garo of Northeast India. In: Berger P., Kroesen J. (Ed.) Ultimate Ambiguities: Investigating Death and Liminality. New York: Berghahn Books. 15-36.
- De Maaker E. (2015), Book review: Borderland lives in Northern South Asia Review of: Gellner, D.N. (2013) Borderland lives in Northern South Asia, South Asia. Journal of South Asian Studies 38(2): 349-350.
- De Maaker E. & Van Schendel W. (2014), Asian borderlands: Introducing their permeability, strategic uses and meanings, Journal of Borderlands Studies 29(1): 3-11.
- De Maaker E. (2014), Book review: Beatrix Hauser, 2012, Promising rituals: Gender and performativity in Eastern India Review of: Hauser, B. Promising Rituals: Gender and Performativity in Eastern India, Contributions to Indian Sociology 48(442-445).
- De Maaker E. (2014), Researching Garo death rites. In: Chaudhuri S.K., Chaudhuri S.S. (Ed.) Fieldwork in South Asia: Memories, Moments and Experiences. New Delhi, India: Sage Publications. 167-186.
- De Maaker E. (2014), Why do South Asian documentaries matter?, The Newsletter 68(summer): 30.
- De Maaker E. (2013), Have the mitdes gone silent? Conversion, rhetoric, and the continuing importance of the lower Deities in Northeast India. In: Young R., Seitz J.A. (Ed.) Asia in the Making of Christianity. no. 35 Leiden: Brill. 135-159.
- Maaker E. de (2013), Performing the Garo nation? Garo Wangala dancing between faith and folklore, Asian Ethnology 72(2): 221-239.
- Maaker E. de (2012), Becoming a Borderland: The Politics of Space and Identity in Colonial Northeastern India Review of: Becoming a Borderland: The Politics of Space and Identity in Colonial Northeastern India., 640, Seminar 640(640): 98-99.
- Maaker E. de, Dubois F., Polit K. & Riphagen M. (2011), From ritual ground to stage. In: Grimes R.L., Hüsken U., Simon U., Venbrux E. (Ed.) Ritual, media and conflict. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 35-61.
- Maaker E. de (2011), Negotiations at death: Assessing gifts, mothers, and marriages. In: Hüsken U., Neubert F. (Ed.) Negotiating Rites. New York: Oxford University Press. 43-57.
- Maaker E. de, Venbrux E. & Quartier T. (2011), Reinventing "All Souls' Day": Spirituality, contemporary art, and the remembrance of the dead. In: Ahn Gregor (Ed.) Ritual dynamics and the science of ritual. Reflexivity, media and visuality. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 617-634.
- Maaker, E. de (2000), Integrating Ethnographic Research and Filmmaking: Video Elicitation for a Performance Oriented Analysis of the Teyyam Ritual [Dynamics of Death. Mortuary rituals and social transformation among the Garo, North Eastern India] (translation: Maaker E. de), Visual Anthropology 13(2): 185-197.
- Maaker E. de (2010), Functie bij : Asian Borderlands Research Network (ABRN). [other].
- Maaker E. de & Schleiter M. (2010), Indigeneity as a cultural practice: 'Tribe' and the state in India. Introduction to the focus section 'Indigenous India', IIAS Newsletter 53, special issue The Focus 'Indigenous' India 53: 16-17.
- Maaker E. de & Schleiter M. (2010), Member of editorial staff IIAS Newsletter 53, special issue The Focus 'Indigenous' India .
- Venbrux E., Maaker E. de, Heessels M. & Wojtkowiak J. (2009), Kunst als religie. Allerzielen Allicht van Ida van der Lee op de Nieuwe Oosterbegraafplaats in Amsterdam. In: Verdult P. (Ed.) God en kunst. Over het verschijnen en verdwijnen van het religieuze in de kunst. Tielt: Lannoo. 272-287.
- Maaker E. de (2009), Narratives of Garo Witchcraft. In: Jansen J., Luning S.W.J., Maaker E. de (Ed.) Traditions on the move. Essays in Honour of Jarich Oosten. Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers. 147-157.
- Jansen J., Luning S.W.J. & Maaker E. de (Eds.) (2009), Traditions on the move. Essays in honour of Jarich Oosten. Amsterdam: Rozenberg.
- Maaker E. de (2008), Een nieuw bestaan voor de doden: Ritueel en spiritualiteit in het kunstproject Allerzielen Alom. In: Lee I. van der (Ed.) Allerzielen Alom: Kunst tot Gedenken. Zoetermeer: Meinema.
- Maaker E. de, Quartier T., Wojtkowiak J. & Venbrux E. (2008), Kreatives Totengedenken: Rituelle erinnerungsräume in einem Niederländischen Kunstprojekt. In: Jaarboek voor liturgieonderzoek. Groningen. 155-176.
- Maaker E. de (2007), Rituals for a Garo Nation. Paper presented at the seminar: Ritual dynamics of conlicts. Heidelberg. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2007), De transformatie van een traditie: post-seculiere vieringen van Allerzielen in Nederland.. Openluchtmuseum Arnhem. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2007), Garo perspectives on illness and healing.. Leiden University. [other].
- Maaker E. de (1 February 2007), Negotiating life: Garo death rituals and the transformation of society. (Lecture). Heidelberg.
- Maaker E. de, Nijland D.J. & Geirnaert-Martin D. (2007), Ashes of life, the annual rituals of Laboya, Sumba 1996. An ethnographic multimedia DVD. Göttingen: IWF Knowledge and Media (release no. C 12594).
- Maaker E. de (2007), Comment on the policy of the Indian government towards the Burmese military rulers in relation to the volatile situation in Northeast India.. [other].
- Maaker E. de & Joshi V. (2007), Editor of Northeast India and beyond: Region and culture, special issue of South Asia: Journal of South Asian studies. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2007), From the Songsarek faith to Christianity: Religious change and cultural continuity in West Garo Hills, South Asia 30(3): 517-530.
- Maaker E. de & Joshi V. (2007), Introduction in Northeast India and beyond: Region and culture, South Asia 30(3): 381-390.
- Maaker E. de (2006), On the efficacy of the funerals of Songsarek Garo. Tura, Meghalaya State, India. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2006), Tribes of mind? Exploring, contesting and redefining notions of tribe. Leiden, the Netherlands. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2006), On the efficacy of the death rituals of Songsarek Garo. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2006), Towards an understanding of the changing Hill Societies of Northeastern India. Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands. [other].
- Maaker E. de (30 March 2006), Negotiating life: Garo death rituals and the transformation of society (PhD thesis. Research School CNWS, Faculty of Humanities, Leiden University). Supervisor(s): Oosten, J.G.; Schendel, H.W. van.
- Maaker E. de (2006), Towards an understanding of the Changing Hill Societies of Northeastern India. Leiden: Leiden University. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2006), De doden onder de levenden. In: Senten M. (Ed.) Verwondering, wetenschap in Nederland 2006. Amsterdam/Den Haag: Boom Publishers. 206-208.
- Maaker E. de (2006), Functie bij : Organized by IWF Knowledge and Media. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2006), Recording, constructing and reviewing Teyyam, the annual visit of the God Vishnumurti. In: Crawford P., Postma M. (Ed.) Reflecting Visual Ethnography: Using the camera in anthropological research. Leiden/ Aarhus: CNWS Publishers/ Intervention Press. 103-118.
- Maaker E. de (2002), "The Negotiation of Kinship: Mortuary Rituals of the Garo of North Eastern India.". Leiden: CNWS. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2002), Between Own And Other: Garo Perceptions Of Descent, Affinity And Seniority. Leiden.
- Maaker E. de (2002), Dynamics of Death. Mortuary rituals and social transformation among the Garo, North Eastern India.. Utrecht: Wotro Researchers Day. [other].
- Maaker E. de (2002), "It's Not Niam" The Articulation Of Kin Relations On Death Of A Garo. Heidelberg. [other].
- Maaker E. de & Nijland D.J. (2001), Ashes of life, the annual rituals of Laboya, Sumba 1996. Part II: Padu Patyala. Leiden: Institute for Cultural and Social Studies. [other].
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