Universiteit Leiden

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Anne Heyer


Dr. A. Heyer
+31 71 527 1646

Anne Heyer is a PhD student affiliated to the Political Legitimacy profile area. She is working at the Institute for History on the subproject “The Birth of Political Mass Parties” of the NWO-funded project The Promise of Organization.


Research project: The Birth of Political Mass Parties

The research project 'The Promise of Organization' deals with the political history of the nineteenth century, the era of the gradual incorporation of organization (pressure groups, revolutionary organizations and finally political parties) in Western political traditions.

Anne Heyer studies the initial phase of the early mass political parties at the end of the 19th century. These political parties differed from previously existing mass political organizations, because they had direct access to parliaments through the recent extension of suffrage rights. In contrast to previously existing parties that loosely organized the old political elite, the new mass parties were based on an extensive organizational body that now included previously excluded social groups in politics.

Much has been written about the emergence of political parties, but more often than not only in a single national context. Moreover, their history has mostly been written teleologically, with an eye to their 20th-century role, not with reference to 19th-century voluntary associations (whose history for that matter has often been written as the history of ‘proto-parties’). By studying three of the first modern parties of three different political currents in three different countries the effects of the emergence of the modern political party for the development of politics and the development of the modern voluntary organization will become clear.

Three cases have been selected:

  1. The National Liberal Federation or Birmingham Caucus of Joseph Chamberlain and Francis Schnadhorst (1877) in the United Kingdom.

  2. The orthodox Protestant Antirevolutionaire Partij of Abraham Kuyper in the Netherlands (1879).

  3. The socialist party of August Bebel and Friedrich Liebknecht and its direct forerunners in Germany: Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei (1869), Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (1875).


Curriculum vitae


  • University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, September 2009 – August 2010
    MSc in Politics by Research

  • Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany September 2006 – June 2009
    B.A. in International Politics and History

  • University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, September 08 – February 2009
    Exchange semester as a student of the Prometheus Programme of Transition Studies.


  • Dritte Düsseldorfer Graduiertenkonferenz Parteienwissenschaften in Düsseldorf, Germany, February 2012 (Presentation “Comparing Early Political Parties - Opportunities and Challenges“)

  • Democracy and Organization (Paper, presentation and organization of Conference) Leiden, Netherlands, March 2012

  • European Social Science History Conference, Glasgow, UK, April 2012 (Paper and presentation on “Discussing Political Organization - The Promise of Organization and its Implementation”)

  • Overige
  • Externen



  • Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen
  • Institute for History
  • Vaderlandse Geschiedenis

Assistant professor

  • Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen
  • Institute for History
  • Algemene Geschiedenis

Work address

Johan Huizinga
Doelensteeg 16
2311 VL Leiden
Room number 003



No relevant ancillary activities

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