Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)
CERQ is a questionnaire measuring cognitive coping strategies developed by Dr. Nadia Garnefski and Dr. Vivian Kraaij.
- Nadia Garnefski
The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is a multidimensional questionnaire constructed in order to identify the cognitive emotion regulation strategies (or cognitive coping strategies) someone uses after having experienced negative events or situations. Contrary to other coping questionnaires that do not explicitly differentiate between an individual's thoughts and his or her actual actions, the present questionnaire refers exclusively to an individual's thoughts after having experienced a negative event.
The CERQ is a very easy to administer, self-report questionnaire consisting of 36 items. The questionnaire has been constructed both on a theoretical and empirical basis and measures nine different cognitive coping strategies. The CERQ makes it possible to identify individual cognitive strategies and compare them to norm scores from various population groups. In addition, the questionnaire offers the opportunity to investigate relationships between the use of specific cognitive coping strategies, personality variables, psychopathology and other problems.
The CERQ can be administered in normal populations and clinical populations, in different agegroups. The CERQ can be used to measure someone's general cognitive style as well as someone's cognitive strategy after having experienced a specific event. Separate versions for adults, adolescents and children as well as a short 18-item version have been developed. All of these versions are available in Dutch and English. The CERQ can be used for research and diagnostic purposes.
CERQ for research purposes
You are welcome to use the CERQ for free for research purposes. In case you decide to use our questionnaire, we do however ask you to fill out and send back to us a form concerning a request for the use of the CERQ. This request form can be downloaded from the present site. By signing and sending back this form, the university/research institute to which you belong obtains permission of the authors to make reprints of the CERQ for use in the present research project. Therefore, a kind request to send back to us this request form, in case you are going to use the CERQ.
Collecting the request forms is important for us. In the first place, it has an administrational purpose. We like to know were and by whom our questionnaire is currently being used. It informs us about the countries in which the CERQ is being used and about the languages into which the CERQ has been translated. We would like to include different language versions of the CERQ on this website (perhaps also your version, if you would appreciate that). To be able to do this and to make this website as informative as possible, we need your cooperation!! And perhaps you an we find some opportunity for collaboration on the basis of our common research interests in the future!
In case you will decide to use our questionnaire, it is important to make a decision whether you will use the CERQ as a general coping style questionnaire (by asking how people in general cope with their stress) or as a specific coping strategy questionnaire (for example by asking how people cope with the fact they have experienced a specific stressful life event). The CERQ can be used in both ways. In the latter case, of course, the instruction has to be adapted.
Fill out the request form to get permission to download the manual as well as different versions of the CERQ questionnaires
CERQ for diagnostic purposes
CERQ can very well be used for individual diagnostic purposes, by assessing to what extent someone deviates from his or her norm group regarding the use of nine specific cognitive coping strategies, in order to find targets for intervention.
There are, however, costs involved for using the CERQ for diagnostic purposes. For questions about the use of the CERQ for diagnostic purposes and costs that are involved we like to refer you to the publisher of our test, Datec Psychological Tests in the Netherlands for the Dutch Datec site and for the English Datec site. Datec provides a simple to use but full featured computer program, Datec Score Manager. Using Datec Score Manager, tests and test batteries can be taken online at the computer, or using paper & pencil and scored with the rapid P&P module. The program creates comprehensive textual reports that can be edited in Microsoft Word. You can contact Datec for a demo version.
Life events scale - in Dutch
The CERQ is used to measure a response to negative life events. This can either be a specific response to a specific life event or a style of responding to negative life events in general. In the latter case the general self-report negative life events scale that we developed for our own projects - in Dutch only - might be used and adapted for specific purposes.
You are free to download and adapt this life events self-report measure, as long as you refer in your publications to this website.
Life events scale Dutch version - Garnefski & Kraaij (.pdf)
|Dr. Nadia Garnefski
Department of Clinical psychology
P.O. Box 9555
2300 RB Leiden
Fax: +31 71 5273774
|Dr. Vivian Kraaij
Department of Clinical Psychology
P.O. Box 9555
2300 RB Leiden
Fax: +31 71 5273736
Publications concerning the CERQ as well as the publications of other research groups. In most cases pdf versions of the articles can be downloaded.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., Benoist, M., Bout, Z., Karels, E., Smit, A. (2013). Effect of a cognitive behavioral self-help intervention on depression, anxiety, and coping self-efficacy in people with rheumatic disease. Arthritis Care and Research , 65, 1077 – 1084.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., Wijers, E., & Hamming, J. (2013). Effects of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program on depressed mood for people with peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 20(2), 186-191.
Kraaij, V. & Garnefski, N. (2012). Coping and depressive symptoms in adolescents with a chronic medical condition: A search for intervention targets. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1593-1600.
Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2012). Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program on emotional problems for people with acquired hearing loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal Of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17, 75-84.
Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2012).Cognitive coping and goal adjustment are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in people with acquired hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology, 51, 545-550.
Schroevers, M.J., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2011). Cancer patients’experience of positive and negative changes due to the illness: Relationships with psychological well-being, coping, and goal reengagement. Psycho Oncology, 20, 165-172.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Schroevers, M.J. (2011). Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program on depressed mood for people with acquired chronic physical impairments: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 85, 304-307.
Kraaij, V., van Emmerik, A., Garnefski, N, Schroevers, M.J., Lo-Fo-Wong, D., van Empelen, P., Dusseldorp, E., Witlox, R., & Maes, S. (2010).
Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 80, 200-204.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M.J., Weijmer, J., & Helmerhorst, F. (2010). Cognitive coping, goal adjustment, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in people undergoing infertility treatment: A prospective study. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(6), 876-886.
Kraaij, V., van Emmerik, A., & Garnefski, N. (2010). Zelfhulpprogramma’s. In A. Schadé, A.D. Boenink & S.A. Danner (Eds.), Handboek hiv en psychische klachten (pp. 277-284). Utrecht, The Netherlands: De Tijdstroom.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V. de Graaf, M., & Karels, L. (2010). Psychological interventin targets for people with visual impairments: The importance of cognitive coping and goal adjustment. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32, 142-147.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., Schroevers, M.J., Aarnink, J., Heijden, D.J. van der, Es, S.M. van, Herpen, M. van, & Somsen, G.A (2009). Cognitive coping and goal adjustment after first-time myocardial infarction: Relationships with symptoms of depression. Behavioral Medicine, 35, 79-86.
Garnefski, N., Grol, M., Kraaij, V., & Hamming, J. (2009). Cognitive coping and goal adjustment in people with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Relationships with depressive symptoms. Patient Education and Counseling, 76, 132-137.
Garnefski, N, Koopman, H., Kraaij, V., & ten Cate, R. (2009). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological adjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 449-454.
Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2009). Cognitive coping and psychological adjustment in different types of stressful life events. Individual Differences research, 7, 168-181.
Van der Veek, S.M.C., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2009). Down or up? Explaining positive and negative emotions in parents of children with Down’s syndrome: Goals, cognitive coping and resources. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 34(3), 216-229.
Van der Veek, S.M.C., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2009). Cognitive coping strategies and stress in parents of children with Down Syndrome: A prospective study. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 295-306.
Massey, E.K., Garnefski, N., & Gebhardt, W.A. (2009). Goal frustration, coping and well-being in the context of adolescent headache: A self-regulation approach. European Journal of Pain, 13, 977-984.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Schroevers, M.J. (2009). Coping, goal adjustment, and positive and negative affect in definitive infertility. Journal of Health psychology, 14, 18-26.
Garnefski, N., Koopman, H., Kraaij, V., & ten Cate, R. (2009). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological adjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. Journal of adolescence,32, 449-454.
Slee, N., Garnefski, N., Spinhoven, Ph., & Arensman, E. (2008). The influence of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depression severity on deliberate self-harm. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38, 274-286.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M.J., van der Veek, S.M., Witlox, R., & Maes, S. (2008). Cognitive coping, goal self-efficacy and personal growth in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Patient Education and Counseling, 72, 301-304.
Kraaij, V., van der Veek, S.M., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M.J., Witlox, R., & Maes, S. (2008). Coping, goal adjustment, and psychological well-being in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 22, 395-402.
Schroevers, M., Kraaij, V. & Garnefski, N. (2008). How do cancer patients manage unattainable personal goals and regulate their emotions? An examination of the relations between goal adjustment, cognitive emotion-regulation strategies, and positive and negative affect. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 551-62.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., Schroevers, M.J., & Somsen, G.A. (2008). Posttraumatic growth after a myocardial infarction: a matter of personality, psychological health, or cognitive coping?Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 15, 270-277.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Vlietstra, A. (2008). Cognitive coping and depressive symptoms in definitive infertility: A prospective study.Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 29, 9-16.
Kraaij, V., Arensman, E., Garnefski, N., & Kremers, I. (2007). The role of cognitive coping in female victims of stalking.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22, 1603-1612.
Garnefski, N., & Kraaij,V. (2007). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Psychometric features and prospective relationships with depression and anxiety in adults.European journal of Psychological Assessment, 23, 141-149.
Amone-P`Olak, K., Garnefski, & Kraaij, V. (2007). Adolescents caught between fires: Cognitive emotion regulation in response to war experiences in Northern Uganda.Journal of Adolescence, 30, 655-669.
Garnefski, N., Rieffe, C., Jellesma, F., Meerum Terwogt, M., & Kraaij, V. (2007). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems in 9-11-year-old children: The development of an instrument.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 1-9.
Schroevers, M., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2007). Goal disturbance, cognitive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment to different types of stressful life event. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 413-423.
Van der Veek, S.M.C., Kraaij, V., Van Koppen, W., & Garnefski, N., & Joekes, K. (2007). Goal disturbance, cognitive coping and psychological distress in HIV-infected persons.Journal of Health Psychology, 12 (2), 225-230.
Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2006). Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Development of a short 18-item version (CERQ-short).Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1045-1053.
Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2006). Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples.Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1659-1669.
Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2006). The role of intrusion, avoidance, and cognitive coping strategies more than 50 years after war.Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 19, 1-14.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & van Etten, M. (2005). Specificity of relations between adolescents’ cognitive emotion regulation strategies and Internalizing and Externalizing psychopathology.Journal of Adolescence, 28, 619-631.
Garnefski, N., Baan, N., & Kraaij, V. (2005). Psychological distress and cognitive emotion regulation strategies among farmers who fell victim to the foot-and-mouth crisis. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1317-1327.
Van der Veek, S., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2005). Down om uw kind met Down? Een onderzoek naar het stress-copingmodel in ouders van kinderen met Downsyndroom.Down + Up-date, 72, 1-3.
Garnefski, N., Teerds, J., Kraaij, V., Legerstee, J., & Van den Kommer, T. (2004). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: Differences between males and females.Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 267-276.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., De Wilde, E.J., Dijkstra, A., Gebhardt, W., Maes, S., & Ter Doest, L. (2003). Negative life events and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: Bonding and cognitive coping as vulnerability factors?Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(3), 185-193.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Van Gerwen, L. (2003). Cognitive coping and anxiety symptoms among people who seek help for fear of flying. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 74, 273-277.
Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Van Gerwen, L. (2003). Cognitive coping and anxiety among people with fear of flying. In R. Bor & L. Van Gerwen (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on fear of flying (pp. 89-99). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Garnefski, N., Boon, S., & Kraaij, V. (2003). Relationships between cognitive strategies of adolescents and depressive symptomatology across different types of life event.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(6), 401-408.
Garnefski, N., Pannebakker, N., Ruchlewska, A., & Kraaij, V. (2003). De relatie tussen cognitieve copingstrategieën, persoonlijkheidstrekken en symptomen van depressie.Gedrag en Gezondheid, 31, 250-261.
Kraaij, V., Pruymboom, E., & Garnefski, N. (2002). Cognitive coping and depressive symptoms in the elderly: A longitudinal study. Aging & Mental Health, 6(3), 275-281.
Garnefski, N., Legerstee, J., Kraaij, V., Van den Kommer, T., & Teerds, J. (2002). Cognitive coping strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety: A comparison between adolescents and adults.Journal of Adolescence, 25, 603-611.
Garnefski, N., Van den Kommer, T., Kraaij, V., Teerds, J., Legerstee, J., & Onstein, E. (2002). The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems: Comparison between a clinical and a non-clinical sample.European Journal of Personality, 16, 403-420.
Baan, N.W.A., Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2002). Religiositeit, slechts een gedachtespinsel? Een onderzoek naar de relatie van religieuze- en cognitieve copingmechanismen met welbevinden onder boeren getroffen door de MKZ-crisis. Psyche en Geloof, 13, 114-127.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, Ph. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems.Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311-1327.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, Ph. (2001). De relatie tussen cognitieve copingstrategieën en symptomen van depressie, angst en suïcidaliteit.Gedrag & Gezondheid, 29, 148-158.
Published Articles by other Research Groups
If you have a publication using the CERQ, would you be so kind informing us? With your permission, we would like to add the reference and pdf file to the list below.
Xiao, J., Huang, R.Z., Ling, Y., Liu, Z.Q., Zhu, X.Z., Yao, S.Q. (2009). Gender Differences of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Senior high school students. Chinese Mental Health Journal,9, 670-673.
Zhu, X., Auerbach, R.P., Yao,S., Abela, J.R.Z., Xiao, J., & Tong, X. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Chinese version. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 288-307.
Zhu, X.Z., Luo, F.S., Yao, S.Q., Auerbach, R.P., & Abela, J.R.Z. (2007). Chinese title / reliability and validity of the Cognitive Emotion regulation Questionnaire - Chinese version. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 15, 121-124.
D'Acremont, M., & Van der Linden, M. (2007). How is imulsivity related to depression in adolescence? Evidence from a French validation of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 271-282.
Dasgupta, M., & Sanyal, N. (2007). Relationships between controllability awareness and cognitive emotion regulation in selected clinical samples: A psychosocial perspective. Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental health, 14, 64-75.
Jermann, F., Van der Linden, M., d’Acremont, M., Zermatten, A. (2006). Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ): Confirmatory factor analyses and psychometric properties of the French translation.European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22, 126-131.
Marszal-Wisniewska, M. (2006). Polish title / Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in difficult life situations: The modifying role of temperamental and depressive properties. Przeglad Psychologiczny, 49, 323-340.
Martin, R.C., & Dahlen, E.R. (2005). Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger.Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1249-1260.