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Research project

Historicizing Security. Enemies of the State, 1813 until present

The research project ‘The History of National Security, 1945-present', is funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), the Campus The Hague/Leiden University and the Netherlands Institute for Military History (NIMH). The project will run until the summer of 2013, when we hope to present our findings. Intermediate products of the project will be published on this website.

Constant Hijzen
NWO Vidi NWO Vidi

Project description

After 1945, the (re-)construction of parliamentary democracies was paralleled by the development of a national security state: a system of organisations, policy procedures and other instruments directed at promoting national security – as well as the underlying ideology, culture and perceptions. How and why did this happen? 

Parliamentary democracies entertain an ambivalent relationship with national security. As open societies, they are more vulnerable to external threats, but at the same time they require public legitimacy to adopt security measures – which themselves might contradict democratic values. This project compares national security regimes in three Western democracies (the Netherlands, the U.S. and [West-]Germany) during the 1945-2010 period. 

It will provide a new view on postwar security history since it firstly rejects the ‘essentialist’ approach to threats and interests undertaken by traditional security studies and does not take for granted balance-of-power explanations for the build-up of military stocks and other security instruments. It rather brings the concept of national security to discussion and investigates why and how certain security threats and interests were perceived and gave rise to security measures (whereas others were overlooked), by exploring the political and social determinants that inform these measures. In the second place it will explore how these interests and threats were contested and how national security regimes transformed over time. Thirdly, it will demonstrate how the national security state became a defining aspect of parliamentary democracies. Through processes of identifying and excluding certain groups as threats to national security, the arena of democratic politics was redefined. 

The project adds to our understanding of the “iron spine” of parliamentary democracies: the development of a national security state. It will analyze different types of national security regimes, the way they are determined, how ‘enemies of the state’ are constructed and how these regimes transformed through stages of contentious politics. 

New way of security-thinking

The Second World War gave birth to a new way of security-thinking. The way countries went about the construction of a national security state varied on one remarkable point: their performative power (e.g. the extent to which the security measures received public and political support and created a new reality of threat and security awareness) and political legitimacy. In this project we will ask the following questions:

  • Who were the decision-makers regarding the new national security infrastructures?
  • What were their intentions, what threats did they identify? What factors did propel them to construct these images of national security threats and interests?
  • Did these measures and corresponding threats possess political legitimacy?
  • Did the decision-makers and/or their measures mobilize public and political support?
  • Did the new security instruments change the underlying security regimes and culture, did they create new security and threat images?

In answering these questions, we will learn more about the way national security lies at the heart of modern western democracies, and to what extent national security is intertwined with both the political legitimacy conferred on the government by its citizens and the way governments strive to uphold their position of legitimate power by defining threats and dangers to their order.


In the Enemies of the State project we work on three different projects. As project leader Beatrice de Graaf writes an overview of national security in the 19th and 20th centuries. The two PhD-candidates each look at national security from the perspective of security instruments: Constant Hijzen looks into the role of intelligence and security services and Coreline Boot investigates the role of the armed forces. Please click on each of the subprojects for more information.

Constant Hijzen

  • With Beatrice de Graaf, ‘Bound by silver cords. The Dutch intelligence community and its transatlantic relations after 1945’, in: Giles Scott Smith (red.), Obama , US Politics, and Transatlantic Relations: Change or Continuity (New York et al.: Peter Lang, 2011). Edited and forthcoming. 
  • With Daniel Meijer, 'Draaien, opbouwen, runnen en afbouwen: Human intelligence in de Nederlandse context', in: Terrorisme. Studies over terrorisme en terrorismebestrijding in Nederland (Deventer: Kluwer 2010). 
  • ‘Een gewelddadiger wereld. Het ontstaan van de ETA verklaard’, in: Leidschrift. Historisch Tijdschrift Vol. 23, No. 1, (2008), p. 129-149. Read the article here

Coreline Boot

  • 'Het leger onder vuur. Kritiek op het Nederlandse militaire veiligheidsbeleid, 1966-1979', in: Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, jg. 125, nr. 3, pp. 350-365. 
  • With Beatrice de Graaf, 'Hollanditis' oder 'Schwaches Glied in der NATO-Kette'? Niederländische Proteste gegen den NATO-Doppelbeschluss, 1979-1985’, in: Philipp Gassert and Hermann Wentker (ed.): Tagungsband Zweiter Kalter Krieg und Friedensbewegung: Der NATO-Doppelbeschluss in deutsch-deutscher und internationaler Perspektive (Washington D.C./München/Berlin 2011).
  • 'DDR Patria Nostra? Repatriierte Fremdenlegionäre in der DDR: Von der Öffentlichkeit in die Staatssicherheit', in: Deutschland Archiv: Zeitschrift für das vereinigte Deutschland, Vol. 43, No. 1 (2010), p. 66-73.

Beatrice de Graaf

  • Gevaarlijke vrouwen. Terrorismeverdachten in het vizier (Amsterdam: Boom), forthcoming early 2012. 
  • ‘Nationale veiligheid in Nederland. De geschiedenis van een ordeningsprincipe’, in: Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, vol. 125, nr. 1 (2012), under review. 
  • Evaluating Counterterrorist Performance: A Comparative Study (Abingdon: Routledge/Francis & Taylor, 2011), forthcoming Jan/Feb 2011. Read more about this book here 
  • ‘Terroristen vor Gericht. Terrorismusprozesse als Fortsetzung des Kampfes um die Kommunikationshoheit. Eine Typologie’, in: K. Weinhauer and J. Requate (eds.), Terrorismus als Kommunikationsprozess. Eskalation und Deeskalation in historischer Perspektive (Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag, 2011), edited and forthcoming. 
  • With Edwin Bakker, ‘Wat moet je met een eenzame terrorist?’, in: De Groene Amsterdammer, vol. 135, nr. 31 (4 August 2011), p. 10-13. 
  • ‘Religion bites: Religieuze orthodoxie op de nationale veiligheidsagenda’, in: Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, vol. 2, nr. 2 ( 2011), p. 62-80. 
  • With Leena Malkki, ‘Killing It Softly? The demise of left-wing terrorism in the Netherlands’, in: Terrorism and Political Violence Vol. 22, No. 4 (December, 2010), p. 642-659. Read the article here 
  • With George Dimitriu, ‘The Dutch COIN-approach: Three Years in Uruzgan, 2006-2009’, in: Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol. 21, No. 3 (September 2010), p. 429-458. Read the article here 
  • With Bob de Graaff, ‘Bringing politics back in. The introduction of ‘the performative power’ of counterterrorism’, in: Critical Studies on Terrorism Vol. 3, No. 2 (August 2010), p. 263-277. Read the article here 
  • Theater van de angst. De strijd tegen terrorisme in Nederland, Duitsland, Italië en Amerika (Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom, 28 January 2010).  
  • With Erwin Muller and Joop van Reijn(eds.), Inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten(Alphen a/d Rijn: Kluwer 2010). 
  • ‘Veilig wonen in een glazen huis? ‘Securitisering’ van de samenleving en het welzijn van het volk’, in: G.J. Spijker (ed.), Vrijheid. Een christelijk-sociaal pleidooi (Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn Motief, 2010), p. 166-180. 
  • With Isabelle Duyvesteyn (eds.), Terroristen en hun bestrijders, vroeger en nu(Amsterdam: Boom, 2007). 
  • With Ben de Jong and Wies Platje (eds.), Battleground Western Europe. Intelligence operations in Germanyand the Netherlands in the 20th century (Apeldoorn: Het Spinhuis Publishers, 2007). 
  • Over de Muur. De DDR, de Nederlandse kerken en de vredesbeweging (Amsterdam: Boom, 2004). Published PhD-thesis. 


  • 'Contemporary History 1850-2010', BA 1-course Department of History/Leiden University, spring 2012 (Constant Hijzen). 
  • 'Waar waren wij bang voor? De geschiedenis van binnen- en buitenlandse (politieke) dreigingen van 1945 tot heden', BA 2/3-course Department of History/Leiden University, Fall 2012-Spring 2013 (Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot).


  • 'Waar waren wij bang voor? De geschiedenis van binnen- en buitenlandse (politieke) dreigingen van 1945 tot heden', BA 2/3-course Department of History/Leiden University, Fall 2011-Spring 2012 (Beatrice de Graaf, Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot). 
  • 'Contemporary History 1850-2010', BA 1-course Department of History/Leiden University, Spring 2011 (Constant Hijzen). 


  • 'Waar waren wij bang voor? De geschiedenis van binnen- en buitenlandse (politieke) dreigingen van 1945 tot heden', BA 2/3-course Department of History/Leiden University, Fall 2010-Spring 2011 (Beatrice de Graaf, in cooperation with Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot). Read the description in the prospectus here 
  • 'Terrorism & Counterterrorism (Prof. Paul Cliteur), ‘De performative power van contraterrorismebeleid’, lecture at the Honours Class Faculty of Law, Leiden University, 21 May 2010 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘Why Effectiveness is Not the Question. The Performative Power of Counterterrorism’, lecture within the MA-course ‘Terrorism and Counterterrorism’ (Mark Dechesne), Leiden University, Public Administration Department, 18 May 2010 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘The performative power of terrorism trials’, guest lecture at the Law Faculty of the Free University, (Prof. Elies van Sliedregt/Prof. Matthias Borgers), 2 February 2010 (Beatrice de Graaf). 


  • ‘Performative power of counterterrorism: the Netherlands, the US and Germany in the 1970s, Lecture on behalf of visiting START-students’, The Hague, 5 January 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘Counterterrorism in historical perspective’, guest lecture within the MA-course ‘Terrorisme en politiek geweld’, Department of History, Leiden University, 6 March 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘Capitulatie en reconstructie in Duitsland na 1945: 4 x de 4 d’s’, guest lecture within the MA-course ‘Closing the security gap’, Department of International Relations in Historical Perspective/Institute of History, Utrecht University, 18 February 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘The performative power of counterterrorism’, guest lecture at the lunch seminar of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University, 11 February 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘Terrorisme als theater: De politiek-maatschappelijke impact van terrorismeprocessen’, lecture on behalf of MA-students in the Law program of the VU/Fac. der Rechtsgeleerdheid, 3 februari 2009, Amsterdam (Beatrice de Graaf). 


  • ‘Intelligence in Nederland’, guest lecture for the HOVO, Utrecht, 22 September 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘Terrorism and Counterterrorism in the Netherlands’, guest lecture within the minor ‘Safety, Security and Justice’, within the seminar ‘SPM 6000: Introduction to Security Systems Analysis’, Campus The Hague/TU Delft, 10 September 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘De KGB in de Brezjnev-periode’, guest lecture within the research seminar ‘Breznjev’, Institute of History, Utrecht University, 16 June 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘De 'Dutch Approach': de Nederlandse ct-benadering in internationaal en historisch perspectief?’, lecture within ‘Security & Overheid’, Masterprogram ‘Security Science & Management’, Campus The Hague, 13 June 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘A closer look on terrorist groups’, guest lecture for the Summer Law School of the Asser Institute, Den Haag, 11 June 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‚Der Umgang der niederländischen Justiz mit dem Terrorismus im historisch-internationalen Vergleich’, guest lecture for the Max Planck Institut für europäische Rechtsgeschichte, Frankfurt am Main, 19 May 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘De Affaire Moro: terrorisme als bind- en kilmiddel’, guest lecture for the Department of Italian language and culture, University of Amsterdam, 9 May 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • ‘Closing the Public Security gap in Africa’, guest lecture within the MA-course ‘Closing the Public Security Gap’, Department of International Relations in Historical Perspective/Institute of History, Utrecht University, 28 March 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 


  • ‘Intelligence in de Koude Oorlog’, guest lecture within the research seminar ‘De Koude Oorlog’, University of Amsterdam, 2 Oktober 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf).

Past events


  • Seminar 'Terrorism and Society: An International Comparative Approach', organised by Prof. Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, Department of History and Civilization, European University Institute, Florence, March 29-30, 2012. See seminar website
  • Conference 'Security and Conspiracy Dispositives in Modern History', organised by Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf and Prof. dr. Cornel Zwierlein (in cooperation with Constant Hijzen, Coreline Boot and Liesbeth van der Heide), Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, The Hague, May 31/June 1st, 2012. See the invitation with a call for papers  
  • 2012 International BISA/ISA conference, theme: ‘Diversity in the Discipline: Tension or Opportunity in Responding to Global Challenges', organised by British International Studies Association and the International Studies Association, Edinburgh, 20th-22th June, 2012. See the flyer 
  • Recently published: 'Vom Majestätsverbrechen Zum Terrorismus', Karl Härter und Beatrice de Graaf


  • Second meeting Network on Securitisation: 'Security as principle of order in modern history', organised by Beatrice de Graaf and Willem Schinkel (in cooperation with Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot), Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, The Hague, 11 October 2011.
  • Expert meeting: ‘Projected Worlds: Data, Digitisation and Decision’presentation: ‘Anticipatory Profiles and Preemptive Prosecution. Risk Justice in the Netherlands’, Tyneside Cinema Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, 3-4 November 2011 (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • Conference 'The global 1970s: A radical decade in global perspective', presentation: ‘The western states’ response to the radical challenge of the 1970s’, Department of History, Boston University, 10-11 November 2011 (Beatrice de Graaf). See the flyer 
  • Presentation: Seminar 'Virtual Research Environments, Collaboratories for Researchers', SURF Academy, Leiden, 26 October 2011 (Beatrice de Graaf, Constant Hijzen, Coreline Boot). See the program
  • Meeting 10 years 9/11, organised by Spui 25, lecture: ‘De ongekende vijand. De verdwijning van de vijand uit het veiligheidsbeleid’, Amsterdam, 12 September 2011. 
  • International expert meeting for counterterrorism coordinators, organised by the NCTv, lecture: ‘The International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense against Anarchists 1898. A first example of international police cooperation in the struggle against terrorism’, Scheveningen, 28 June 2011.  
  • Cultural walk 'Obscure The Hague', 1 June 2011, organised by Constant Hijzen.
  • Conference 'The Future of Intelligence: Threats, Challenges and Opportunities', organized by the Netherlands Intelligence Association (NISA), 27 - 28 May 2011, moderation workshop (Constant Hijzen).
  • Symposium: ‘Controle’, organised by the Young Academy/Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 11 February 2011, lecture: ‘Introductie van de Securitization Theory: Veiligheid als ordeningsprincipe’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Exhibition: 'Angry. Young and radical', organised by the Dutch Photo museum Rotterdam, 22 January 2011, lecture at the opening of the exhibition: ‘Wat doen we met de radicaal?’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Evening meeting: Felix Meritis/Felix & Sofie, Amsterdam, 18 January 2011, lecture: ‘Veiligheid en populisme: Twee handen op dezelfde buik?’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting PhD-Network: "State, government, citizen", organised by the Netwerk Politieke Geschiedenis, 17 January 2011, presentation of the Enemies-of-the-state-project (Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot).  


  • Evening meeting: Deutsche Botschaft Den Haag, 16 December 2010, ‘Joachim Gauck: Vom Bürgerrechtler bis Präsidentskandidat’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: ‘Privacy, recht en veiligheid’, organised by the youth wing of the Dutch Political Party SGP, Elburg, 10 December 2010, lecture: ‘Tussen veiligheid en vrijheid’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: United States Commission on Military History, Washington, 4 December 2010, lecture:  ‘The Netherlands in Uruzgan: political decision making process’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: Nacht van de Rechtsstaat, organised by Felix Meritis&Forum, Amsterdam, 19 November 2010, lecture: ‘Veiligheid als bom onder de rechtsstaat?’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Workshop: Counterterrorism and Human Rights, organized by the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism (NCTb), The Hague, 18 November 2010, lecture: ‘Counterterrorism performance and human rights: an uneasy relationship?’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: ‘The end of terrorism. Lessons in comparative perspective’, organised by the Fundacion Manuel Gimenez Abad, Zaragoza, 15 November 2010, lecture: ‘Decline and dissolution of Italian terrorism: the case of the Brigate Rosse, 1970-2001’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Workshop: Research Theme Group ‘Terrorists on Trial’, organized by the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies, 11 November 2010, lecture: ‘Terrorists on trial: performativity and social drama’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Workshop: ‘Side Event Counterterrorism, Communication and Non-State Actors’, organized by the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, The Hague, 3 November 2010, lecture: ‘The performative and Communicative Power of counter-Terrorism’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: "The Obama effect: Transatlantic perspectives on past and future (Fifth biennial conference on transatlantic studies", organised by the Middelburg Centre for Transatlantic Studies, the Roosevelt Study Centre, the University of Central Missouri, and the University of South Dakota, Middelburg, 27-30 October 2010, lecture: "The making of the National Security State. The Netherlands and the U.S. compared" (Constant Hijzen). 
  • Symposium: ‘Using the Internet to Finance Terrorism and Recruiting Terrorists’, organised by Cairo University and the Naif Arab University for Security Sciences/Studies&Research Center, Cairo/Egypt, 25 October 2010, lecture: ‘Countering terrorism on the internet: virtually disrupting the ‘ziggurat of zealotry’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: Netherlands Institute for Advanced Sciences, Wassenaar, 21 October 2010, lecture: ‘Terrorisme als theater: De politiek-maatschappelijke impact van terrorismeprocessen’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: General Intelligence and Security Service of the Netherlands (AIVD), Noordwijkerhout, 29 September 2010, lecture: ‘De performative power van contraterrorismebeleid’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Graduiertenkolleg: "Staats-Feinde und Staatssicherheit", organised by the Duitsland Instituut Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 17 September 2010, presentation 'Intelligence and security services in the national security state', and discussion of the Enemies-of-the-State-project with Gisela Diewald-Kerkmann (Beatrice de Graaf, Constant Hijzen).
  • Breakfast at the Opening-day of the Dutch Parlament: Castle De Wittenburg, Wassenaar, 17 September 2010, Co-lecture with Herman van Rompuy: ‘De geestelijke gronden van Europa’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: ‘Kleine mensen, grote daden’, 150 years Studium Generale Utrecht, 13 September 2010, lecture: ‘De historische held: afdanker of blijvertje?’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: ‘Insurgency and Counterinsurgency: Irregular Warfare from 1800 to the Present’, organised by the International Commission of Military History, Amsterdam, 29 August-3 September 2010, paper with George Dimitriu: ‘Three Years of Dutch Counterinsurgency. Strategy and Tactics in Uruzgan, 2006-2010’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Expert meeting: “Angst voor religie? Een verkenning van het veiligheidsdebat en – discours”, organised by the Instituut Forum/Commissie Religie en het Publieke Domein, Den Haag, 23 June 2010, lecture: “Wie is er bang voor religie? De aanzuigende werking van het veiligheidsdiscours” (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: "Third International Graduate Conference: States of Emergency – Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Dynamics of Crisis”, organised by the Graduate School of North American Studies (GSNAS)/John F. Kennedy Institute, Free University Berlin, lecture: “The Performative Power of Security Politics: The Construction of a Security State in Postwar Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S. (1945-1950)”, 11-12 June 2010 (Beatrice de Graaf and Constant Hijzen).
  • Conference: „Zeitgeschichtetage 2010 – Perspektiven der Zeitgeschichte“, organised by the Institut für Zeitgeschichte/Universität Wien, Vienna, 27 May 2010, lecture: „Die Mobilisierungskraft von Terrorismusbekämpfung: eine international-komparative Studie“ (also presented on invitation by the Institute for the History of Western Europe, Graduiertenkolleg/Humboldt Universität, Berlin, 22 April 2010) (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Seminar: “Hedendaags extremisme en terrorisme”, organized by the Centre for Information and Research on Organised Crime (CIROC), Utrecht, 17 February 2010, lecture: “De ‘performative power’ van terrorismebestrijding. De wisselwerking van extremisme en overheidsbeleid”, (also presented at 17 March 2010, at the SIB-Seminar, Leiden University) (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Book presentation: ‘Theater van de angst. De strijd tegen terrorisme in Nederland, Duitsland, Italië en Amerika’, organised by the Centre for Radicalisation and Extermism studies/Universiteit van Amsterdam, 4 February 2010 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Seminar: State of the art-conference of the research on ‘Terrorism, counterterrorism and radicalisation’, organized by the centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism (Campus The Hague) and the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism (NCTb), 28 January 2010 , lecture: ‘Counterterrorism as performance’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 


  • Conference: “NATO Joint Forces Headquearters COIN-conference”, AFCENT/Brunssum, 16 December 2009, lecture: “The Dutch approach in Uruzgan, permanent presence, permanent debate” (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Interview: Lars Brandt (son of Willy Brandt), organised by the Genootschap Nederland-Duitsland, Deutsche Botschaft, The Hague, 1 December 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • Conference: „Reformen, neue soziale Bewegungen und Polarisierung. Die Niederlande und Deutschland in den 1970er Jahren im Vergleich“, organised by the Zentrum für Niederlande Studien Münster and the Instituut Geschiedenis Utrecht, Münster, 21 November 2009, lecture: „Terrorismus, Staat und Gesellschaft. Die Niederlande und Deutschland im Vergleich“ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Expert meeting: National Coordinator for Counterterrorism, The Hague, 19 November 2009, lecture: ‘What to expect next? Terrorist modus operandi in the future’ (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: Studygroup Noord-West-Veluwe, Putten, 13 November 2009, lecture: ‘Duitse dichters en denkers: “Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland”. Van de Sonderweg naar de Ankunft im Westen’ (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • Conference: Kerzen-Kirche-Kontroversen. Die Rolle der evangelischen Kirche 1989/90 in der Zeitgeschichtsforschung, ‘Die friedliche Revolution – Mauerfall und Geschichtsschreibung aus niederländischer Sicht’,  organised by the Evangelische Akademie Thüringen, Universität Karlsruhe and Universität Leipzig, Neudietendorf bei Erfurt, 6-7 November 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf).  
  • Debate: ‘Gabriele Stötzer: leven in de DDR’, organised by the Haags Gemeentemuseum and the German Embassy, 3 November 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • PhD-Meeting: "PhD-Network on terrorism", organised by Utrecht University, Utrecht, 27 Oktober 2009, lecture: "Enemies of the State: The Making of a National Security State, 1945-2001" (Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot). 
  • Meeting: Studium Generale, ‘Waarom viel de Muur. Opstand van het volk of diplomatiek spel?’, Utrecht, 26 October 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • Conference: European Expert Network on Terrorism issues, Vienna, lecture: ‘Why Effectiveness is Not the Question. The Performative Power of Counterterrorism’, 22 October 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Seminar: "Researcher's seminar", organised by the Campus Den Haag, Den Haag, 22 October 2009, lecture: "Enemies of the State: The Making of a National Security State, 1945-2001" (Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot). 
  • Election debate: “Germany”, organised by the Instituut voor Publiek en Politiek and the Goethe-Institut Niederlande,  Den Haag, 22 September 2009, lecture: “Veiligheid als thema in de Duitse verkiezingen” (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: ‘Terrorisme en ethiek’, lecture for army chaplains, Hydepark/Doorn, 14 September 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Research group: ‘Terrorists on Trial’, organised by the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies, Wassenaar, lecture: ‘Terrorism trials and the performative power of counterterrorism strategy, a cross historical and international comparison’, 10 September 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Expert meeting: with Eberhart van der Laan, organised by Forum, The Hague, lecture: ‘Orthodoxie en radicalisering: wiens problem?’, 7 July 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Expert meeting: “Right wing extremism, police and justice”, organised by the Duitsland Instituut Amsterdam and the Anne Frank Stichting, 18/19 June 2009, lecture: “Countering right wing extremism: when and why does it scare us, and how bad is that?” (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: "Internationale Graduiertenkonferenz", organised by the Zentrum für Niederlandestudien Münster and  the Duitsland Instituut Amsterdam, Münster, 15-16 June 2009, lecture: "Enemies of the State: The Making of a National Security State, 1945-2001" (Constant Hijzen and Coreline Boot).  
  • Expert meeting: ‘Counter-narratives and the performative power of Counterterrorism’, organised by Campus The Hague/National Coordinator for Counterterrorism, lecture: ‘Counter-narratives and the stories we are already telling’, 4-5 June 2009 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: "Regions in Europe. Seminar on the role of cross border regions in an integrated Europe", organised by Maastricht University and the European Union, Maastricht University, 14-15 May 2009, lecture: Violent regional movements. The backgrund of ETA in Spain" (Constant Hijzen). See the program    
  • Workshop:  “Case studies and methodologies in terrorism research”, organised by RAND/Department of Homeland Security, Washington, 16 April 2009, referee (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: „Zweiter Kalter Krieg und Friedensbewegung: der NATO-Doppelbeschluss in deutsch-deutscher und internationaler Perspektive”, organised by the German Historical Institute in Washington D.C. and the Institut für Zeitgeschichte München, Berlin, 27 March 2009, lecture: "Die Niederlande: Unklare Regierungslinie und starke Friedensbewegung" (Coreline Boot).


  • Meeting: Veritas, around the presentation of Cees Dekker’s edited volume Geleerd en gelovig, organised by Forum, Leiden, lecture: ‘De zin van of de zinvolle geschiedenis? Bijdrage, 2 December 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • Introduction to the film ‘Der Baader-Meinhof-Komplex’, during the premiere in Amsterdam, 20 November 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: ‘Studium Generale’, lecture: ‘New Wars: terrorism’, Utrecht. 7 October 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: Rotary-Club Woubrugge, lecture: ‘Jihadisme: de huidige terrorisme-dreiging en historisch perspectief’, 10 September 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: 19. Kolloquium zur Polizeigeschichte ‚Polizei, politisches Verbrechen, „Terrorismus“ und innere Sicherheit’, organised by the Max Planck Institut für europäische Rechtsgeschichte, and the Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, Frankfurt am Main‚ lecture: ‚Regionale Aufklärungseinheiten in den Niederlanden: Polizeiliche Geheimdienstarbeit und Terrorismus, von den 1970er Jahren bis in die Gegenwart’, 17-19 July 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Seminar: ‘Terrorismebestrijding in Nederland’, organised by the Police Academy Concernlocaton, Apeldoorn, lecture: ‘Terrorisme: definities en historische context’, 1 July 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Seminar: ‘Terrorism’, on behalf of the Police Academy Ossendrecht, lecture: ‘Terrorismebestrijding in Nederland: enkele case-studies’. 23 June 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf).
  • Symposium: ‘De rechtvaardige oorlog’, organised by the Vereniging voor Christenhistorici, the CTC and the Institute for History/Utrecht University, Utrecht, lecture: ‘Inleiding op de rechtvaardige oorlog, vroeger en nu’, 9 June 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: ‘How to stop terrorists’, organized by the Stanford University/German Historical Institute, Washington, lecture: ‘The Free South Moluccan Youths: radicalization and integration of post-colonial revolutionaries’ and ‘Why do terrorists quit, how do counterterrorism measures contribute to this demise and what lessons can be learned from the past? The Italian Case: The Red Brigades’, 7-8 June 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Presentation: NWO-Vidi, ‘Enemies of the State: de ontwikkeling van de Nationale Veiligheidsstaat na 1945’, 15 May 2008, The Hague (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Conference: ‘Exit-Strategies’, organised by the CTC, lecture: ‘Counterintelligence as a Counterterrorism Tool. Practices and opportunities’, 24 April 2008 (Beatrice de Graaf). 


  • Book presentation: ‘Politische Literatur in der Kunstbuchhandlung: Über die Mauer’, on behalf of the Bildungswerk Weiterdenken in der Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung and the Buchhandlung im Kunsthof, Dresden, 21 September 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Book presentation: ‚Über die Mauer’, organised by the Zentrum für Niederlande-Studien Münster, 9 May 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Seminar: organised by the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism and the Bundeskriminalamt, The Hague, lecture: ‚Kontraterrorismus in den Siebzigern in Deutschland, Italien und den Niederlanden. Lessons Learned’, 24 January 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Winteracademy: organised by the ‘ICS Forum voor geloof, wetenschap en samenleving/IFES Nederland’, Utrecht, lecture: ‘Gewelddadige fanatici: kinderen van de Verlichting of van God?’, 20 January 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Colloquiem: Duitsland Instituut, Amsterdam, lecture: ‘Duitsers als slachtoffer’, 18 January 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf). 
  • Meeting: Police Academy Apeldoorn, lecture: ‘Wanneer houden terroristen ermee op?’, 9 January 2007 (Beatrice de Graaf).

Connection with other research

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