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Freezing conditions in warm disks: snowlines and their effect on the chemical structure of planet-forming disks

This thesis focusses on the temperature structure in protoplanetary disks. The relation between structures seen in the dust and gas-phase molecules is investigated.

M. Leemker
14 February 2024
Thesis in Leiden Repository

This is crucial to understand the chemical composition of the planet forming material as well as to quantify the amount of gas present in the disk, a crucial parameter to determine if planets are likely present in the disk. One of the important regions in the disk is the water snowline, the midplane location where water freezes-out onto the dust grains. In this thesis, chemical modelling is used to infer the snowline location in a hot disk. This result is confirmed in the next chapter by 2D imaging of the water snow surface, the 2D equivalent of the water snowline. Additionally, the temperature structure across transition disk cavities is investigated to determine the mass of the planets that may be carving that cavity. Finally, the relation between the structures traced in the gas by different molecules and the dust is investigated to show that the chemical composition at the location of the dust rings and dust trap in the HD 100546 and OPH-IRS 48 disks, respectively, are different than in the other disk regions.

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