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Child Law

Leiden Children's Rights Observatory

The Leiden Children's Rights Observatory is an open access online database on international children's rights jurisprudence, focusing on the decisions of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communication Procedure (also known as the Third Optional Protocol to the CRC [OP3] or the CRC Communication Protocol). The Leiden Children's Rights Observatory includes case commentaries written by international experts on children's rights, which offer original analyses of and critical reflections on the views of the CRC Committee in the context of legal developments and emerging (global) trends related to children's rights. The Leiden Children's Rights Observatory is based at the Department of Child Law of Leiden Law School in the Netherlands.

The Leiden Children's Rights Observatory is an open access online database on international children's rights jurisprudence, focusing on the decisions of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC Committee), under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communication Procedure (CRC Communication Protocol).

The CRC Communication Protocol, which entered into force in 2014, established a complaints procedure for alleged violations of rights under the CRC and/or its Optional Protocols; it allows individuals, groups and states to bring communications before the CRC Committee. The adoption of the Protocol has been recognized as an important milestone in recognizing children’s rights, and for providing access to justice and remedies at the international level.

The Leiden Children's Rights Observatory was founded to study the Protocol and the CRC Committee's decisions under the Protocol, and to consider the impact it has on international children's rights jurisprudence and children’s access to justice. It aims to present the views of the CRC Committee to academics, practitioners, students, and other interested parties by case commentaries, written by international experts on children's rights.

The case commentaries refer to decisions made by the CRC Committee under the CRC Communication Protocol and offer original analysis, critical observations and reflections on legal developments and standards. The commentaries may connect the cases before the CRC Committee to other children's rights cases before regional human rights courts, relevant decisions of other UN treaty-bodies, as well as to children's rights cases at the national level. The case commentaries may also interact with other sources of international children's rights law (i.e., the CRC Committee's general comments or Concluding Observations), thus providing an inter-connected, multi-layered and comparative examination of children's rights jurisprudence.

The Leiden Children's Rights Observatory is based at the Department of Child Law of Leiden Law School, in the Netherlands.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the case commentaries are those of the author(s) alone, and do not reflect the views of Leiden University or any other entities that the author(s) is, or have been, affiliated with, nor do they reflect the views of the CRC Committee itself, or any of its members.

Ton Liefaard, Professor of Children's Rights and UNICEF Chair in Children's Rights, Leiden Law School, Leiden University.

Julia Sloth-Nielsen, Professor of Children's Rights in the Developing World, Leiden Law School, Leiden University.

Jaap Doek, Guest Professor of Children's Rights, Leiden Law School, Leiden University and Emeritus Professor of Family and Child Law, VU University Amsterdam; Chairperson of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2001-2007).

Managing Editor
Daniella Zlotnik, LL.M. Alumna Master of Laws: Advanced Studies in International Children’s Rights

Acronym List

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

CRC

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 25 May 2000.

Children in Armed Conflict Protocol; CRC OP1

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, 18 January 2002.

Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography Protocol; CRC OP2

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on a Communication Procedure, 19 December 2011.

CRC Communication Protocol; CRC OP3

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child

CRC Committee

UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

CEDAW

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

CEDAW Committee

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

CESCR Committee

Legal Texts

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 20 November 1989.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 25 May 2000.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, 25 May 2000.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on a Communication Procedure, 19 December 2011.

CRC Communication Procedure Related Documents

CRC Committee, Rules of Procedure under the Optional Protocol on the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communication Procedure, 16 April 2013.

CRC Optional Protocol on a Communication Procedure - Ratification Status

CRC Committee Jurisprudence Database

Table of pending cases before the CRC Committee

Academic Literature on the CRC Communication Procedure

Skelton A. (2018) International Children’s Rights Law: Complaints and Remedies. In: Kilkelly U., Liefaard T. (eds) International Human Rights of Children. International Human Rights. Springer, Singapore

S.C. Grover, ‘’Children Defending their Human Rights under the CRC Communications Procedure: on Strengthening the Convention on the Rights of the Child Complaints Mechanism’’, Springer (2015).

S.I. Spronk, ''Realizing Children's Right to Health; Additional Values of the Optional Protocol on a Communication Procedure for Children'', International Journal of Children's Rights, Vol 22, 1 (2014).

R. Smith, ''The Third Optional Protocol to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child? - Challenges Arising Transforming the Rhetoric into Reality'', International Journal of Children's Rights 21, (2013).

Y. Lee, ''Communication Procedure under the Convention on the Rights of the Child: 3rd Optional Protocol'', International Journal of Children's Rights, Vol 18, 4 (2010).

The editorial team of the Leiden Children's Rights Observatory can be contacted at: CRCobservatory@law.leidenuniv.nl.

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