Universiteit Leiden

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Research project

Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity

The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS) measures cognitive reactivity (CR) to sadness, an aspect of cognitive vulnerability to depression, conceptually similar to rumination.

Willem van der Does

It was developed from 1999 as an alternative for the then gold standard measure of CR, DAS change score before and after a sad mood induction. The first paper on the LEIDS scale was published in Behaviour Research and Therapy in 2002. This paper describes a 26-item scale with four subscales that was used in publications 1-4. 
In 2003, Mark Williams of Oxford University and professor Willem van der Does made a revision of the scale, the LEIDS-R, that had 34 items and is used in most other publications. Appropriate references for the LEIDS-R are references 5-7.  

The most recent version, LEIDS-RR, will be published in Psychological Assessment (Solis et al., 2016). The scale now contains 30 items. All these items were also included in the LEIDS-R. The subscale definitions have changed, based on factor-analytic research in large samples.


  1. Van der Does AJW (2002). Cognitive reactivity to sad mood: structure and validity of a new measure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40: 105-120. [abstract]
  2. Van der Does AJW (2002): Different types of experimentally induced sad mood? Behavior Therapy, 33: 551 – 561. [abstract]
  3. Van der Does AJW (2005): Thought suppression and cognitive vulnerability to depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44: 1-14. [abstract]
  4. Booij L, Van der Does AJW (2007): Cognitive and serotonergic vulnerability to depression: convergent findings.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116: 86-94.
  5. Van der Does, AJW & Williams, JMG (2003). Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity – Revised (LEIDS-R). Leiden University. http://www.dousa.nl/publications_depression.htm#LEIDS
  6. Merens W, Booij L, Markus RC, Zitman FG, Onkenhout W, Van der Does AJW (2005): The effects of a diet enriched with alpha-lactalbumin on mood and cortisol response in unmedicated recovered depressed subjects and controls. British Journal of Nutrition, 94: 415-422. [abstract]
  7. Williams JMG, Van der Does AJW, Barnhofer T, Crane C, Segal ZV (2007): Cognitive reactivity, suicidal ideation and future fluency: Investigating a differential activation theory of suicidality. Cognitive Therapy and Research, in press.
  8. Solis EC, Antypa N, Conijn J, Kelderman H, Van der Does W (2016). Psychometric properties of the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity. Psychological Assessment, in press. 

LEIDS-scale download

http://www.dousa.nl/leids/ for more information and LEIDS-scale downloads in Dutch, English, Slovenian, Spanish, Italian, German, Farsi, French and Arabic.


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