Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity
The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS) measures cognitive reactivity (CR) to sadness, an aspect of cognitive vulnerability to depression, conceptually similar to rumination.
- Willem van der Does
It was developed from 1999 as an alternative for the then gold standard measure of CR, DAS change score before and after a sad mood induction. The first paper on the LEIDS scale was published in Behaviour Research and Therapy in 2002. This paper describes a 26-item scale with four subscales that was used in publications 1-4.
In 2003, Mark Williams of Oxford University and professor Willem van der Does made a revision of the scale, the LEIDS-R, that had 34 items and is used in most other publications. Appropriate references for the LEIDS-R are references 5-7.
The most recent version, LEIDS-RR, will be published in Psychological Assessment (Solis et al., 2016). The scale now contains 30 items. All these items were also included in the LEIDS-R. The subscale definitions have changed, based on factor-analytic research in large samples.
- Van der Does AJW (2002). Cognitive reactivity to sad mood: structure and validity of a new measure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40: 105-120. [abstract]
- Van der Does AJW (2002): Different types of experimentally induced sad mood? Behavior Therapy, 33: 551 – 561. [abstract]
- Van der Does AJW (2005): Thought suppression and cognitive vulnerability to depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44: 1-14. [abstract]
- Booij L, Van der Does AJW (2007): Cognitive and serotonergic vulnerability to depression: convergent findings.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116: 86-94.
- Van der Does, AJW & Williams, JMG (2003). Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity – Revised (LEIDS-R). Leiden University. http://www.dousa.nl/publications_depression.htm#LEIDS
- Merens W, Booij L, Markus RC, Zitman FG, Onkenhout W, Van der Does AJW (2005): The effects of a diet enriched with alpha-lactalbumin on mood and cortisol response in unmedicated recovered depressed subjects and controls. British Journal of Nutrition, 94: 415-422. [abstract]
- Williams JMG, Van der Does AJW, Barnhofer T, Crane C, Segal ZV (2007): Cognitive reactivity, suicidal ideation and future fluency: Investigating a differential activation theory of suicidality. Cognitive Therapy and Research, in press.
- Solis EC, Antypa N, Conijn J, Kelderman H, Van der Does W (2016). Psychometric properties of the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity. Psychological Assessment, in press.
http://www.dousa.nl/leids/ for more information and LEIDS-scale downloads in Dutch, English, Slovenian, Spanish, Italian, German, Farsi, French and Arabic.