Universiteit Leiden

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Research programme

The Hague Program for Cyber Norms

A research program that focuses on the development and implementation of cyber norms.

2017  -   2020
Dennis Broeders
Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Hague Program for Cyber Norms focuses on the development and implementation of cyber norms. We ask how norms are and can be applied to support cyber security, stability and peace. For this purpose we examine how consensus is developing, among governments, academics and the society, on certain norms and how they should apply to State behavior in cyberspace. We also investigate the development of normative thought and scholarship in this field and we contribute to the dialogue about standards of responsible behavior in use of ICTs.

Our Program is an independent and inclusive platform that welcomes academic and non-academic partners. We invite international thinkers and practitioners to apply critical thinking to the cyber peace and security issues. The platform is open for cooperation to all interested universities and scholars.

Our projects and products take a range of forms, that includes work on a comprehensive cyber norms literature review. We are studying and developing methods for studying, teaching and developing cyber norms, that also result in teaching and reference materials on the subject. Our yearly digests of related thought and writings are intended to broaden the base of academic research and debate in this area. Yearly seminars support this research agenda and invite international support and participation. Each year, we also conduct a series of smaller events on acute and interesting topics.


For better inclusion and exchange of expertise, we offer short-term fellowships to scholars working in fields relating to international norms and cyber security. These fellowships will provide scholars with the opportunity to work in The Hague for a minimum of one week and a maximum of one month, for example to write or present their work, thus contributing to the Program’s research as well as making use of its function as an international platform.


The current team consists of a chair, senior fellow, three PhD-students and a program assistant. The Program falls under the Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) at the Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs of Leiden University. It is located in The Hague.


The Program is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is part of a continuing commitment by the Netherlands to support development of international norms and understanding with regard to the development and use of ICTs and related new technologies, following the Global Conference on Cyber Space (GCCS) hosted in The Hague in 2015.

Resource materials to be used for research on cyber norms


Cumulative Recommendations in the UN GGE Reports (2010-2015)

A table that provides a cumulative overview on the development of recommendations in the UN GGE reports, indicating in blue what has been added in each respective year.

Connection with other research

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