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Research programme

The Hague Program for Cyber Norms

A research program that focuses on the development and implementation of cyber norms.

2017 - 2021
Dennis Broeders
Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Hague Program for Cyber Norms focuses on the development and implementation of cyber norms. We ask how norms are and can be applied to support cyber security, stability and peace. For this purpose we examine how consensus is developing, among governments, academics and the society, on certain norms and how they should apply to State behavior in cyberspace. We also investigate the development of normative thought and scholarship in this field and we contribute to the dialogue about standards of responsible behavior in use of ICTs.

Our Program is an independent and inclusive platform that welcomes academic and non-academic partners. We invite international thinkers and practitioners to apply critical thinking to the cyber peace and security issues. The platform is open for cooperation to all interested universities and scholars.

Our projects and products take a range of forms, that includes work on a comprehensive cyber norms literature review. We are studying and developing methods for studying, teaching and developing cyber norms, that also result in teaching and reference materials on the subject. Our yearly digests of related thought and writings are intended to broaden the base of academic research and debate in this area. Yearly seminars support this research agenda and invite international support and participation. Each year, we also conduct a series of smaller events on acute and interesting topics.


For better inclusion and exchange of expertise, we offer short-term fellowships to scholars working in fields relating to international norms and cyber security. These fellowships will provide scholars with the opportunity to work in The Hague for a minimum of one week and a maximum of one month, for example to write or present their work, thus contributing to the Program’s research as well as making use of its function as an international platform.


The current team consists of a chair, senior fellow, two PhD-students and a program assistant. The Program falls under the Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) at the Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs of Leiden University. It is located in The Hague.


The Program is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is part of a continuing commitment by the Netherlands to support development of international norms and understanding with regard to the development and use of ICTs and related new technologies, following the Global Conference on Cyber Space (GCCS) hosted in The Hague in 2015.

We offer short-term fellowships to exchange expertise on cyber norms. Find out here who already joined the program as a visiting fellow or how to apply for your own visiting fellowship.

How to apply

The Hague Program for Cyber Norms invites researchers and professionals with an interest and/or background in international norms and cybersecurity at any stage of their career (from early-career researchers to established professionals) to apply for one of our visiting fellowships. We aim to be an independent and inclusive platform, welcoming experts across the world to cooperate with us when it comes to our research and other work on cyber norms.

Selected visiting fellows can join us throughout the year for a period of minimum 1 week to a maximum of 1 month at Leiden University’s The Hague Campus. The fellowships cover travel and accommodation expenses.

In order to apply, please send your full application (in .pdf or .doc(x)) to Ms. Corianne Oosterbaan at c.m.oosterbaan@fgga.leidenuniv.nl containing:

1. A statement of intent of maximum 2 pages, elaborating on the following questions:

  • What you intend to work on during the fellowship;
  • Why you are a fit with the program;
  • How you are planning to interact with the researchers of the Program and how your own researchwould benefit from these interactions;
  • What kind of deliverable you plan to produce during or after your fellowship;
  • The desired duration and timing of your fellowship

2. A full CV, including a full list of publications.

Only complete applications will be accepted for review. After receiving your application, we will carefully evaluate your application, and let you know whether or not your application was successful within a timeframe of 4 weeks.

If you have any questions, before or after applying, please contact Corianne Oosterbaan at c.m.oosterbaan@fgga.leidenuniv.nl

Resource materials to be used for research on cyber norms

Cumulative Recommendations in the UN GGE Reports (2010-2015)

A table that provides a cumulative overview on the development of recommendations in the UN GGE reports, indicating in blue what has been added in each respective year.

Cyber norms bibliography

A regularly updated and easily searchable academic bibliography on cyber norms-related publications.

Related research

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