Allosteric modulation by sodium ions and amilorides of G protein-coupled receptors
Promotor: A.P. IJzerman
- Arnault Massink
- 08 December 2016
- Thesis in Leiden Repository
A closer look at the sodium ion site of the adenosine A2a receptor and development of a mass spectrometry ligand binding assay for adenosine A1 and A2a receptors
The main theme of this thesis, allosteric modulation effectuated through the sodium ion site of GPCRs, is inspired by the important role that this site appears to play in GPCR signaling. As sodium ions are abundant under physiological conditions they may affect GPCR signaling considerably. Receptor activation causes a substantial rearrangement of the sodium ion site, suggesting an important role in this process. Chapter 2 reviews the current knowledge on allosteric modulation of amiloride and its derivatives binding to the sodium ion site of Class A GPCRs. Chapters 3 to 5 follow-up on the recent crystal structure of the adenosine A2A receptor with a sodium ion bound. Chapters 3 and 4 complement the crystal structure with additional results from combined biochemistry, biophysical, molecular dynamics, and mutational studies. Chapter 5 describes the synthesis of novel amiloride derivatives that bind in the sodium ion site but also protrude into the orthosteric binding site. In Chapters 3 to 5, radio-labeled ligands were used to quantify ligand binding to the receptor, and Chapter 6 describes an alternative approach towards ligand binding assays. Instead of using a radio-label, mass spectrometry was used to quantify binding of an unlabeled ligand to adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.