Universiteit Leiden

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Research project

The use of self- and peer assessment with video in courses on professional practice

How can video on professional practices in university courses be used in a valid and useful way for assessment and feedback?

2016 - 2018
Nadira Saab

Using video to facilitate reflection and feedback on professional practice is applied in several domains of higher education, such as nursing communication training (Yoo & Chae, 2011), teacher training (Wu & Koa, 2008) and training of language skills (Cheng & Chau, 2009).  Students’ performances are recorded and analysed by themselves, their peers and/or their teacher. This video analysis can be used in a summative way, where teachers assess the skills of the student in order to evaluate student competence. Video analysis can also be used in a formative way, in which feedback and assessment are provided during students’ learning process, with the aim of improving their  perfomance based on this assessment. Formative assessment can be conducted by the teacher, but also by students in the form of peer- and self assessment.  

In higher education, peer- and self assessments are being used more and more to engage students in their own learning process (De Wever, Van Keer, schellens, & Valcke, 2011). Self assessment helps students to regulate their learning (Nicol & Macfarlane, 2006) and can improve their performance (Klecker, 2007; Wilson, Boyd, Chen & Jamal, 2011). Peer assessment  can be useful for both the assessee and assessor (the feedback provider)(i.e. Lundstrom & Baker, 2009)(i.e. Lundstrom and Baker 2009). Teachers often do not have time to provide feedback multiple times during the learning proces, whereas with peer assessment it is possible to provide students with feedback more frequently. In addition, providing feedback engages the assessor in problem analysis and formulating suggestions for improvement (Patchan & Schunn, 2015), which can serve as an additional learning profit for the assessor. For example, various studies show that peer assessment can have a positive effect on the reflection skills of pre-service teachers (Sluijsmans, Brand-Gruwel, & Van Merrienboer, 2002; Sluijsmans, Brand-Gruwel, Van Merrienboer, & Bastiaens, 2003). 

The quality of feedback is important as well (Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2005; Van den Berg, Admiraal & Pilot, 2006). Receiving specific feedback, for example, can lead to beter learning results than receiving general feedback (Lin et al., 2001). However, peer assessment has not always the same quality as teacher assessment. Different results have been found regarding this matter (Falchikov & Goldfinch, 2000). Some studies suggest that peer assessment is similar to the assessment provided by teachers (Pereira et al., 2014; Wu & Kao, 2008; Topping, 1998; Tseng & Tsai, 2007). Other studies show that teachers’ and students’ feedback differ, albeit not always in quality (Admiraal, 2014; Admiraal et al., 2011; Chen, 2010; Davies, 2006; Ng & Lai, 2012).  

In this study, we will investigate how and to what extent self- assessment and peer assessment ca be valid assessment tools when using video in courses on professional practical skills, by analysing and comparing types of feedback. We will use the online video platform Kaltura and Pitch to Peer. In these platforms any comment can be annotated to a specific moment in the video. Students will be asked to upload a video of a particular performance, the student and his/her peers will be instructed how to analyse the video and reflect (self-assessment) or give (peer) feedback. Finally, the teacher provides feedback as well. The following research question and sub questions will be addressed:  
How can video on professional practices in university courses be used in a valid and useful way for assessment and feedback?

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