Universiteit Leiden

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Research programme

The Hague Program on International Cyber Security

Taking the changing landscape of international cyber security and cyber conflict as a point of departure, The Hague Program on International Cyber Security focuses on the various modes of governance that states and other actors can bring into play to deal with and shape the strategic changes and challenges in the digital environment.

2022 - 2025
Dennis Broeders
Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

We have international cyber security as our core focus, with an emphasis on cyber conflict ‘below the threshold’ and the role of emerging technologies. We study the development of international cyber conflict and the international governance thereof, more specifically: international law, norms, strategy and diplomacy.

We aim to be a hub for connecting academics, policy makers and other experts on a national, European and international level. To this end we organize workshops and conferences, host visiting fellows and engage with the global community of scholars, think tankers, NGOs, policy makers, the technical community and industry that engage with issues of international cyber security.

Our Program is an independent and inclusive platform that welcomes both academic and non-academic partners. We invite international thinkers and practitioners to apply critical thinking to cyber peace and security issues. The platform is open for cooperation to all interested universities and scholars.

On the one hand, we are an academic research program studying what is happening in the digital world and building up knowledge about cyber conflict and the governance thereof. The program consists of several research projects, organizes an annual academic conference on international cyber security and will publish a yearly digest of academic research and debate in this area.

On the other hand, we look further and stimulate interaction with other stakeholders in the field. We participate in various events and conferences, and plan to organize other types of events and platforms to facilitate and contribute to the cyber norms debate.

Our program builds on the previous work done under The Hague Program for Cyber Norms (2017-2021). Events, publications and other content on our website listed as before 2022 fall under the work of The Hague Program for Cyber Norms.


For better inclusion and an exchange of expertise, we offer short-term fellowships to scholars working in fields related to international cybersecurity. These fellowships will provide scholars and other international cybersecurity experts with the opportunity to work in The Hague for a minimum of one week and a maximum of one month, for example, to write or present their work, thus contributing to the Program’s research as well as making use of its functions as an international platform. Find out how to apply here.


The Program is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is part of a continuing commitment by the Netherlands to support development of international norms and understanding with regard to the development and use of ICTs and related new technologies, following the Global Conference on Cyber Space (GCCS) hosted in The Hague in 2015.

The Hague Program on International Cyber Security falls under the Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) at the Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs of Leiden University. It is located at the university’s campus in The Hague.

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