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Astronomers see two planets vacuuming around young star

Astronomers led by Leiden astronomer Sebastiaan Haffert have directly imaged two planets that are gravitationally carving out a wide gap within a planet-forming disk surrounding a young star. While over a dozen exoplanets have been directly imaged, this is only the second multi-planet system to be photographed.

This is the first time that planets have been photographed that are still growing by accreting material from the disk. The results were published in the 3 June issue of Nature Astronomy.

A gap of 3.8 billion miles

The host star is known as PDS 70 and is about 370 light-years from Earth. The young 6-million-year-old star is slightly smaller and less massive than our Sun, and is still accreting gas. It is surrounded by a disk of gas and dust that has a large gap extending from about 1.9 to 3.8 billion miles.

Two planets

PDS 70b, the innermost known planet, is located within the disk gap at a distance of about 2 billion miles from its star, similar to the orbit of Uranus in our solar system. The team estimates that it weighs anywhere from four to 17 times as much as Jupiter. It was first detected in 2018.

PDS 70c, the newly discovered planet, is located near the outer edge of the disk gap at about 3.3 billion miles from the star, similar to Neptune’s distance from our Sun. It is less massive than planet b, weighing between one and ten times as much as Jupiter. The two planetary orbits are near a 2-to-1 resonance, meaning that the inner planet circles the star twice in the time it takes the outer planet to go around once.

The discovery of these two worlds is significant because it provides direct evidence that forming planets can sweep enough material out of a protoplanetary disk to create an observable gap.

New imaging technique

The team detected PDS 70c from the ground, using the MUSE spectrograph on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope. This spectrograph was co-developed by the Netherlands, and is a very stable instrument with a long shutter speed. A new technique relied on the combination of the high spatial resolution provided by the 8-meter telescope equipped with four lasers and the instrument’s medium spectral resolution that allows it to ‘lock onto’ light emitted by hydrogen, which is a sign of gas accretion.

‘This new observing mode was developed to study galaxies and star clusters at higher spatial resolution. But this new mode also makes it suitable for exoplanet imaging, which was not the original science driver for the MUSE instrument,’ said Sebastiaan Haffert of Leiden Observatory, lead author on the paper. ‘We were very surprised when we found the second planet,’ he added.

In the future, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope may be able to study this system and other planet nurseries using a similar spectral technique to narrow in on various wavelengths of light from hydrogen. This would allow scientists to measure the temperature and density of gas within the disk, which would help our understanding of the growth of gas giant planets. The system might also be targeted by the WFIRST mission, which will carry a high-performance coronagraph that can block out the star’s light to reveal fainter light from the surrounding disk and companion planets.

Adapted from materials provided by STScI
Image: STScI

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