The Foundations of European Integration
Research on this theme concerns the legitimacy and effectiveness of Europe’s institutional order in the face of public alienation and normative contestation. It is anchored in the consideration of long-term processes, including the history of European integration. While European institutions are likely to require new legal competences to address the various challenges facing Europe, the integration process itself is increasingly controversial and at risk of deadlock due to enlargement, concerns about democratic accountability, non-compliance with EU rules by the member states, and enduring commitments to distinctive cultures and identities. As a result, the integration project and its policy-making process have been threatened by Euroscepticism and rule-of-law backsliding.