European Markets, Trade and Digitization
Research on this theme concerns Europe’s position in global markets, its response to the emergence of new international trade and financial actors that challenge institutions where Europe has long had considerable influence. Examples of these institutions are the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization (WTO). It also concerns the EU’s long-standing effort to condition access to the Single Market on other states’ adoption of political and economic reforms and social and environmental regulations based on European norms as well as new issues of data privacy and foreign manipulation of public debate and elections. The research also covers Europe’s growing interest in critical resources and emerging technologies such as rare metals, semi-conductors and artificial intelligence - and the implications this has elsewhere in the world.