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Advance Articles

Here you will find the latest articles accepted for publication in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, with advance access.

BOOK REVIEW | The Challenges of Multilateralism, written by Kathryn C. Lavelle
Benjamin Duerr

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 3 March 2021
China’s Public Diplomacy Goes Political
Ingrid d'Hooghe

China’s growing confidence on the world stage under the leadership of President Xi Jinping is reflected in the country’s more active, vocal and, lately, even ‘wolf warrior’ diplomacy. It is also clearly visible in China’s public diplomacy approach, where priorities have shifted from advertising Chinese culture as the country’s major source of soft power to promoting China’s models of domestic and global governance. The Chinese government proudly presents policies such as the Belt and Road Initiative and, more recently China’s approach to the COVID-19 pandemic, as improvements in global governance or sometimes even as Chinese ‘gifts’ to the world. This article argues that under President Xi, the content and form of China’s public diplomacy have changed. China’s public diplomacy has hardened, it is more strongly controlled by the Chinese Communist Party and the content of China’s public diplomacy messages have become more political.

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 1 March 2021
Consular Protection with Chinese Characteristics: Challenges and Solutions
Liping Xia

In today’s globalised world, giving consular protection to an increasing number of overseas citizens has become a common challenge to foreign ministries. China, as the most populous country witnessing fast economic development, is facing more severe challenges in this field. Since the 18th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, China’s consular protection has demonstrated new trends such as involving more actors in service delivery, constructing a co-ordination network, legalizing the management and taking targeted preventive measures. Compared with developed countries, ‘whole government involvement’ is the most prominent feature of China’s consular protection practice.

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 1 March 2021
The Legacy of Zhou Enlai's Diplomacy: Beyond a Memory
Wang Li and Yaotian Fan

Zhou Enlai held the first Premiership of China from 1949, and was the chief executive of Chinese diplomacy until 1976. He set out the communist ideology and the doctrine of realpolitik in light of a calculation between core interests and a flexible approach to the issues. He opined that diplomacy remained a constructive means, even though no immediate fruits were present. Zhou’s negotiating calibre was noted at the Geneva Conference (1954), his persuasive tactics were proven at the Bandung Conference (1955) and his pragmatic approach was recognised during his safari in Africa (1963-1964). This article explores how Zhou convinced his foreign counterparts that China had no intention of challenging the status quo while pursuing its legitimate rights in the world order. Given this, Zhou’s legacy should serve as a policy guide as well as a personal eulogy for the peaceful rise of China today.

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 10 February 2021
China's Diplomacy: Towards ASEAN Way Norms in the South China Sea
Pauline Kerr

China’s approach to the norms of appropriate behaviour among states is being scrutinised by academics and practitioners — and no more so than in the South China Sea dispute where China’s response to the regional set of diplomatic norms, the ASEAN Way, is controversial. This essay asks three questions: Is China changing its diplomatic practices towards ASEAN Way diplomatic norms and, if so, how and why? Examining the issue through the lens of diplomatic tactics, the essay argues that yes China is changing its diplomacy, by adopting a range of diplomatic tactics: originally acknowledging ASEAN Way norms; later challenging and manipulating them; and, throughout, adopting tactics with ambiguous meanings. China’s tactics change in response to its leaders’ evolving perceptions of China’s international and regional contexts and, in turn, China’s tactics impact the contexts. China’s diplomacy, in this case, is adaptive, multifaceted, context dependent and context-changing, reflecting diplomacy’s longue durée.

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 6 January 2021
BOOK REVIEW | City Diplomacy: Current Trends and Future Prospects, edited by Sohaela Amiri and Efe Sevin
Daniel Pejic

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 23 November 2020
Diplomatic Doctrine and Style with Chinese Characteristics
Chas W. Freeman Jr.

Chinese diplomatic style is the product of many influences. It is rooted in 2,000 years of history but also reflects changes resulting from the Chinese Revolution and the dramatic expansion of its wealth, power, status and interests ongoing today. Much is made of the hierarchical tradition in China’s diplomatic thinking and its resistance to Western diplomatic norms. However, these provide unreliable guides for contemporary Chinese diplomacy. While ‘face’, in terms of the respect of others remains an important consideration, Chinese diplomacy is influenced by upholding its understanding of the principles of sovereignty, non-intervention and self-determination. It is also influenced by the ruling Chinese Communist Party’s conceptions of how political leadership and control are exercised and maintained. These concerns manifest themselves in the way Chinese diplomatic style has avoided force, favoured ambiguity and operated with a clear, but creatively interpreted, distinction between non-negotiable core principles and more flexible concrete arrangements.

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 23 November 2020
BOOK REVIEW | Special Relationships in World Politics: Inter-State Friendship and Diplomacy after the Second World War, written by Kristin Haugevik
Amy Kasper

 

Advance article available at Brill.com

 

Online publication date: 11 November 2020
 
 
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