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Advance Articles

Here you will find the latest articles accepted for publication in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, with advance access.

A Small State’s Campaign to Get Elected to the UNSC: Iceland’s Ambitious Failed Attempt
Baldur Thorhallsson, Jóna Sólveig Elínardóttir and Anna Margrét Eggertsdóttir

This article provides a case study of a small state, Iceland, and its motives for running for a seat on the UN Security Council for the 2009-2010 term, the domestic dispute about the affair, key campaign messages and the campaign strategy. The article fills a gap in the international relations and small state literature on small states’ campaign strategies in UNSC elections. We conclude that the decision to run for a seat and the core message of the campaign were largely based on the quest to enhance Iceland’s status among international actors. However, the country’s lack of resources, limited international engagement and domestic debate about the candidacy became a hindrance. Iceland succeeded in using its smallness to build good momentum for its candidacy but in the end it failed due to weaknesses associated with its small size and its lack of contributions, competence and ideational commitment in the UN.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 14 March 2022
Exploring Citizen Diplomacy’s Local Impact: The Case of Global Ties Kalamazoo
Anna Popkova

This article examines the local impact of citizen diplomacy through the case study of a volunteer-driven citizen diplomacy organisation Global Ties Kalamazoo (GTKzoo) based in Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States). Drawing on the data from 25 in-depth interviews with GTKzoo volunteers, this study demonstrates that citizen diplomats view citizen diplomacy as more authentic compared to traditional diplomacy. Representation as a key component of citizen diplomacy is also discussed, with GTKzoo volunteers struggling to reconcile their desire to ‘show the good parts of America’ with their understanding that ‘the good parts’ alone are not giving visitors a complete picture. This study also introduces two approaches to assessing the local impact of citizen diplomacy — instrumental and reflexive. The study concludes that the reflexive approach dominates citizen diplomats’ discussions as they focus on learning from the visitors, feeling inspired to be better community members, and seeing their local community through a more nuanced perspective.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 10 March 2022
Photographs as Instruments of Public Diplomacy: China’s Visual Storytelling during the Covid-19 Pandemic
Olli Hellmann and Kai Oppermann

This article explores the effectiveness of photographs as instruments of public diplomacy through an analysis of China’s visual storytelling during the Covid-19 outbreak. Beijing considered the pandemic an existential threat to its image and responded with a communications offensive that was designed to highlight the regime’s success in containing the Coronavirus — both at home and abroad — and to safeguard the wider ‘China story’ of a ‘peace-loving and responsible global leader’. By combining scholarship on public diplomacy and strategic narratives with the ‘visual turn’ literature in international relations, this article focuses on the non-verbal dimension of China’s storytelling and explores the impact of photographs — distributed by the regime’s news agency, Xinhua — on international public opinion. Through a survey experiment among 1,000 US adults, we demonstrate that such photographs had a positive effect on China’s international image, but that this effect was moderated by levels of political knowledge among the target audience.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 3 March 2022
The Digitalization of Public Diplomacy, written by Ilan Manor
Gerardo (Gerry) Diaz Bartolome

Book reviewed: Ilan Manor (2019). The Digitalization of Public Diplomacy. Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, xvi + 356pp. ISBN 978-3-030-04404-6 (hardcover £74.99). ISBN 978-3-030-04405-3 (eBook £55.99).


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 2 March 2022
Global Diplomacy and International Society, written by Yolanda Kemp Spies
João Mourato Pinto

Book reviewed: Yolanda Kemp Spies (2019). Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-3-319-95524-7, 272 pp., €80.24.

Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 24 February 2022
The Power to Blame as a Source of Leverage: International Mediation and ‘Dead Cat Diplomacy’
Asaf Siniver

This article addresses a gap in the literature on international mediation by proposing the power to blame as an additional source of mediation leverage that had been hitherto largely ignored. The power to blame is framed here as ‘dead cat diplomacy’, a term originally coined by US Secretary of State James Baker to describe his threats to lay a figurative dead cat at the doorstep of a disputant to publicly signal its intransigence and thus force its acquiescence during the Middle East negotiations following the 1991 Gulf War. Drawing on the case studies of Baker and presidents Obama and Trump, the article presents three conditions necessary for the successful leveraging of the power to blame in international mediation: it must be used as a last resort, be perceived as credible by the targeted disputant and take place at a time when the targeted disputant’s bargaining capacity is limited.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 24 February 2022
Gender, Sexuality, and Intelligence Studies: The Spy in the Closet, written by Mary Manjikian
Elif Ezgi Keleş

Book reviewed: Mary Manjikian (2020). Gender, Sexuality, and Intelligence Studies: The Spy in the Closet. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-030-39894-1 279 pp. €42.79 (eBook)


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 3 February 2022
Cultural Diplomacy and Co-operation in ASEAN: The Role of Arts and Culture Festivals
David Ocón

Beyond their traditional role as entertainment, form of expression and meeting spaces within local communities, arts and culture festivals can perform various functions. They can serve as showcases of artistic pride, signal openness towards cultural diversity, support the local economy, contribute to reducing political tension and provide grounds to consolidate international relationships. On occasion, such festivals function as tools to support the vision of a multilateral co-operation institution, as is the case of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Through a comprehensive review of the arts and culture festivals curated in ASEAN, this article investigates the festivals’ ulterior motivations. A range of economic, political, diplomatic, and organisational logics explain the evolution of such festivals during the last fifty years. The article concludes that arts and culture festivals have remained a compelling and instrumental co-operation mechanism in ASEAN, but formats and approaches need substantial revision.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 15 November 2021
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