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Advance Articles

Here you will find the latest articles accepted for publication in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, with advance access.

Then and Now: A Structural Approach Analysis of Japan’s Cultural Diplomacy towards Thailand
Preechaya Kittipaisalsilpa

Despite the growing significance of Japan’s cultural diplomacy within the landscape of international relations, the study of effective ties with Thailand has not received much attention to date. This article employs a structural approach in analysing ‘when’ and ‘how’ Japan’s cultural diplomacy has evolved vis-à-vis Thailand. The article emphasises the importance of structural factors as being relational, further complicated by different levels and degrees of influence throughout three periods: the economic-oriented period (1950s-1960s), the diplomatic adjustment period (1970s-1980s), and the social relations building period (1990s-present). The analysis reveals two layers of Japan’s foreign policy instruments—economic diplomacy and cultural diplomacy — in the structuralist narrative of Japanese diplomacy towards Thailand. While economic power has been an important instrument, this article highlights how changes in the structure of international systems have had corresponding impacts on Japan’s application of cultural diplomacy that has subsequently shaped the bilateral Japan-Thailand relationship.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 22 July 2021

Water Diplomacy — The New Modus Operandi of EU Diplomacy? Innovative Methods in Diplomatic Practice

Eliška Tomalová and Eliška Ullrichová

This article explores how EU water diplomacy can enrich the current debate on science diplomacy, primarily in the science in diplomacy category. It aims to contribute to the debate on diplomatic instruments and their innovative elements. It focuses on new practices in the field of water diplomacy, including (1) the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders in the diplomatic process from an early stage, (2) a multi-dimensional approach, and (3) multidisciplinary science-based diplomacy. More generally, the article identifies and conceptualises particular diplomatic methods, (1) the internalisation of scientific expertise, (2) cross-cutting lexical understanding across diplomatic agendas, and (3) pluri-disciplinarity, which facilitates the interconnection of science and diplomacy within a diplomatic framework. It thus addresses the commonly acknowledged challenge of interaction between scientists and diplomats and shows that analysis of diplomatic methods may bring more clarity to the peripheral or often neglected science in diplomacy category of science diplomacy.


Article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 22 July 2021
A Balancing Act? Inter-Ministerial Co-operation in the Work of the Cultural Attachés
Dimitra Kizlari and Domenico Valenza

To date, the role of cultural attachés in foreign policy has not been the subject of scholarly research, despite the sharp rise in interest in the field of cultural diplomacy. The present study is a comparative analysis seeking to map the ecosystem in which cultural attachés are embedded with the aim to develop a first-time narrative about their role. Interviews with practitioners from Italy, The Netherlands and Sweden indicate that the post of the cultural attaché is a field of responsibility primarily for two state actors. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Culture both have a vested interest in the work of these cultural operators. The findings suggest that there are two distinct organisational models in how Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Ministries of Culture co-exist and interact.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 15 July 2021
Mapping Innovation Diplomacy in Denmark and Sweden
Didzis Kļaviņš

The aim of this article is to identify and map innovation diplomacy actions in Denmark and Sweden using the ‘functions of innovation systems’ approach. Based on Hekkert et al.’s seven key system functions (Marko P. Hekkert, Roald A. A. Suurs, Simona O. Negro, Stefan Kuhlmann and Ruud E. H. M. Smits, ‘Functions of Innovation Systems: A New Approach for Analysing Technological Change’, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 74 (4) (2007), 413-432), the article assess the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in meeting governments’ innovation targets. The empirical analysis, including twelve semi-structured interviews with seventeen career diplomats, reveals the key initiatives that countries are taking in furthering their homeland’s innovation aims or ambitions. The study also asks whether the ‘diplomacy for innovation’ approach of both Scandinavian MFAs are consistent with the ‘whole-of-government’ and ‘whole-of-society’ approaches.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 15 July 2021
The Rise, Fall and Rebirth of Foreign Policy Planning in Brazil (1949-2018)
Rogério de Souza Farias

Policy planning has a long history in the Ministries of Foreign Affairs around the world. This article provides an overview of almost 70 years of this technique in Brazil’s Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty). I will argue that there has been a clear trade-off between predicting, preaching, disrupting and managing. Despite its failures, planning has been an important tool for coping with uncertainty and has provided coherence in foreign policy-making.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 12 July 2021
BOOK REVIEW | Diplomaties européennes. XIXe-XXIe siècle, written by Laurence Badel
Antonio Missiroli


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 7 July 2021
Culture as a Fluid Interlocutor: Perspectives on Water Diplomacy from South Asia
Medha Bisht and Syed Jamil Ahmed

This article articulates culture in the terrain of water diplomacy. Situating the ‘local’ turn in transboundary water discourse, we argue that dialogue should be made a distinct precursor to formal processes of negotiations in South Asia. Notions of ‘culture’ and ‘community’ are revisited to examine shared ground between social/cultural anthropology and diplomacy studies. The central proposition here is that the idea of transition from political community to water community highlights the potential of culture as a fluid interlocutor. Culture, we argue, can be a non-verbal communicator not only for constituting water communities but also for giving meaning to water flowing in transboundary rivers in holistic terms. Given that these holistic ways of knowing and understanding water are not alien to ‘South Asian perspectives’, culture is offered as a transformative dialogic technique which can help rewrite the notion of community in complex geopolitical settings such as that of South Asia.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 30 June 2021
Hashtagging Justice: Digital Diplomacy and the International Criminal Court on Twitter
David Eichert

This article uses qualitative content analysis to understand how the International Criminal Court (ICC) uses Twitter by building on digital diplomacy literature to assess the different narratives promoted by the ICC online. I find that the ICC is actively creating narratives that position it as part of a unified global fight for justice with wide political support from states and other international organisations. This kind of public diplomacy is unique among criminal courts, with tweets aimed at bolstering political support from both elite diplomats and non-elite lay publics. At the same time, however, this rebranding effort often oversteps the ICC’s limited jurisdiction, reducing complex legal topics to short, emotionally resonant phrases that fit within Twitter’s restricted format. While the Court still attempts to portray its work as politically neutral and objective, the diplomatic messaging of its Twitter account sends a different message about the Court’s social media agenda.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 23 June 2021
Africa, the International Criminal Court and the Law-Diplomacy Nexus
Yolanda Kemp Spies

The pioneering diplomatic role of African states in the establishment of the ICC, with its unprecedented legal mandate, was a triumph for a continent with a recent history of legal — diplomatic subjugation. However, the Court’s perceived Afro-centric bias since its inception, contradiction of sovereign immunity custom, and blatant manipulation by the UN Security Council has prompted the African Union to recommend en masse withdrawal. By contrast, this article makes the case that the continent, rather than being a victim of selective, politicised justice, has capitalised on its ICC membership. The Court has become ‘Africanised’ in its substantive specialisation, its executive profile has assumed an African identity and Africa’s penchant for collective diplomacy is facilitated by quantitative advantage in ICC membership. Maximising its diplomatic agency and using the ICC’s principle of complementarity, Africa now has a unique opportunity to insert itself instrumentally at the law — diplomacy nexus in international relations.


Advance article available at Brill.com


Online publication date: 21 June 2021
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