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Are you passionate about writing and sustainability? Do you feel like sharing your talent with the rest of the university? This is your chance!

We are searching for enthusiastic individuals, who would like to contribute to our newsletter, website and/or social media with their writing. If you are interested or would like to know more information, please send an email to:

communication@lugo.leidenuniv.nl

Please put "Blog Writer" in the subject line and include a short explanation of why you would be fit for the volunteer position and any relevant experience you have with sustainability in the body of your email. We are looking forward hearing from you!

Hi there! My name is Teodora and I am very passionate about sustainability as I think that a lot of human-related activities cause profound environmental concerns as well as associated underlying social, political and economical issues. I am currently doing my Master’s Degree in Romania in the Protection of Natural and Anthropogenic Environments and I have a background in Law and Environmental Engineering. By writing at LUGO, I am willing to share my ideas and knowledge on how to create a greener and more sustainable world. So stay put for quick tips or facts about your relationship with nature.

Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year. In 2020, it fell on August 22. The good thing is, the date has moved back by over three weeks from 29 July in 2019. Will we manage to have a reduced ecological footprint and an even better date this year? It’s only up to us.

According to Global Footprint Network, throughout most of history, humanity has used nature's resources to build cities and roads, to provide food and create products, and to release carbon dioxide at a rate that was well within Earth's budget. But by the early 1970s, that critical threshold had been crossed: Human consumption began outstripping what the planet could reproduce. Sadly, our demand for resources is now equivalent to that of more than 1.5 earths. 

Earth Overshoot Day concept was introduced to raise awareness of Earth's limited resources. It is basically the day when humanity overshoots the planet’s ability to recover from what resources we consume within each year—like regrow the trees we cut down, absorb the carbon dioxide we emit, and replenish the seas with the fish we harvest, for example.

The Overshoot Day calculation relies heavily on an array of country-level and global UN data about everything from the food produced and consumed in each country to how much waste is generated, timber is felled, and fossil fuels are burned. 

David Lin, the chief science officer of the Global Footprint Network, likes to use the analogy of a bank account: If you have $100 in the bank and spend $200, that puts you in the red. You’ll have a deficit of $100. If you keep living like that, spending what you don’t have, eventually you’ll be in trouble. It’s not a sustainable way to live.

Each year, the human population grows. We consume more natural resources than the planet can regenerate in a year, and emit far more carbon dioxide than our forests and oceans can possibly sequester. Thus, our deficit grows. We fall further and further in the red. 

Every country has an Overshoot Day of its own, according to how many resources it consumes and how much waste it produces each year, versus the bioproductive space available. For example, Qatar’s overshoot day in 2021 is 11 February. If the world’s population consumed natural resources and produced waste at the rate that Qatar does, it would take six Earths to sustainably meet those needs. On the other side, Indonesia’s overshoot day in 2021 is 18 December.  

Last year, Coronavirus-induced lockdowns caused the global Ecological Footprint to contract almost 10% pushing the date of Earth Overshoot Day back more than three weeks compared to 2019. However, we should thrive for a world where humanity transitions to one-planet compatibility by design rather than by disaster. The question now is: how do we come out of this crisis and build the future we want to create? When the time comes to get our economies back into gear, let’s shape our choices to turn around natural resource consumption trends while improving the quality of life for all people.

Statistics show that moving the date of Earth Overshoot Day back 5 days each year would allow humanity to reach one-planet compatibility before 2050. Let’s all thrive for that goal!

My name is Loïs and I’m a student of the MA Middle Eastern Studies. I also study at the VU, where I’m enrolled in the MSc Environmental & Resource Management and follow the ‘Global Food Challenges’ track. While I’ve always been interested in the footprint of the food we’re eating, this track has allowed me to deepen my knowledge on the working of our food system, its sustainability and governance. Middle Eastern Studies allows me to combine my love for other regions with this environmental aspect. In my free time I’m passionate about plant-based cooking and baking, being outside with my dog and playing online games!

In order to achieve the national targets for a 49% greenhouse gas reduction by 2030, changes must be made throughout all sectors and institutions in the Netherlands, even in places one might not think of at first. For me, one of such places was the Netherlands Armed Forces. 

Scrolling through Instagram one evening in December, I stumbled across something called the ‘Food 4 Health & Safety Challenge’. Created in alliance with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy and the Ministry of Defense, the goal of this challenge is to design an innovative and sustainable food concept for the Dutch Military. As a ‘Global Food Challenges’ student, this sounded like the perfect fit for me. I wrote a motivation letter, signed up and got accepted. In order to design a sustainable new concept, however, it’s crucial to know what’s unsustainable about the present food concept. Let’s look at this below.

When soldiers go abroad, whether that be for training in Norway or for a NATO mission in Afghanistan, they of course need to be fed. This is done with a Mobile Satellite Kitchen (MSK), a large expandable container connected to a diesel generator and two steam-ovens inside. Frozen food in plastic containers shipped from the manufacturer in The Netherlands is then heated here and brought out to the soldiers in the field. Sustainability wise, this has several downsides. The MSK’s run on fossil-fuels, of which the Ministry of Defense wants a 70% reduction by 2050. What shocked me the most, however, was the fact that plastic packages either end up in local landfills or are burned on site. Plastic ending up in landfills breaks down into microplastics over the years, polluting water resources and ecosystems. Incineration, on the other hand, releases gasses that are considered to be serious health hazards, while at the same time contaminating soil or groundwater resources, with all its consequences.

Lastly, an enormous amount of food is wasted during the missions. A 2014 report by the Royal Dutch Army showed around €450 000 worth of food wasted on one of the missions, around 20% of all delivered meals in total. When decomposing, food waste releases large quantities of methane. Food waste also represents a great waste of water resources, as well as land, labour and fertilizers used to produce it.

Needless to say, I'm glad the current concept is up for renewal, and I’m even more glad to be a part of its possible new, much greener design!

Hi, I’m Tabea and I am from India. The reason that’s relevant is not because I want to sound more foreign than I already am, it’s because it likely gives you an idea of the kind of polluted environment I grew up in, which arguably cultivated my interest in sustainability. In discussion about our climate crisis for my current course, a pre-Master in Cultural Anthropology, an activist accurately said, if CO2 had a colour and we could see the change as fast as it was happening, we would not be in the situation we are in. Alas, we can’t paint the sky, but we can spread knowledge through writing, which is why I’m glad you’re here.

Before you continue, I have a request. 

Close your eyes for a moment and listen. 

In the ‘silence’ of my room, tucked away in a cramped housing block built in the 1970s, the noise is constant. Instead of silence interrupted by the occasional car, my corona-confined life is accompanied by the constant hum of a refrigerator, questionable buzzing of a heater, the faint static ringing of the house’s power-circuit, and a low rumble I have yet to identify. The sounds are constant, in their persistence they can become unnerving. 

So, I put on headphones and tune into a Nature Guys podcast interviewing the Executive Director of Imago, an NGO that runs nature-camps for children in the US. In conversation, they address a growing concern of an ‘insulation from nature’ in urbanised areas, arguing a digression from natural environments could theoretically prove fatal with research suggesting a “connection to nature” as fundamental in mobilising a (pro-)environmental consciousness. In attempts to articulate a long-term solution minimising human impact on the environment, the growing theme of “reconnecting to nature” argues that sustainable living can be achieved by reminding those who have forgotten, of our shared place on earth with nature. 

Although this idea poses an oxymoron, as -in seeking to connect with nature- it assumes we are a separate entity from the natural environment rather than a product of it (Fletcher, 2016), and the research suggesting this “(re)connection” sparks environmentalism is weak (discussed in van Gordon, Shonin & Richardson, 2018), I’ve found consciously spending time in nature is still something we should strive to routinely do. 

In its smallest positive outcome, consciously engaging with nature has been significantly associated to several health benefits including gaining mental clarity, perspective, motivation, and focus (i.e., Sandifer, Sutton-Grier & Ward, 2015; Nisbet, Zelenski & Grandpierre, 2019). In its bigger benefit, spending time in nature may remind some that we need to be making choices that minimise our impact on the environment (Zylstra et al., 2014). 

The key factor, however, is immersion, which brings me back to why I asked you to listen. 

If you, like me, find it difficult (and feel a bit silly) trying to be mentally present in nature while dodging joggers in the park, try to listen. Tune in to the rustle of plants in the wind and listen out for local wildlife. The accompanying calming effect of nature alone underlines the importance that we care for it.  

Hello everyone, my name is Sebastian Moorhead and I am currently a second year Urban Studies student at Leiden University. Ever-growing cities are becoming a huge concern, especially in terms of sustainability, which is why I have decided to study my chosen program: to understand the causes, to find solutions and to share knowledge. By working with LUGO as a blogger, I wish to gain a deeper understanding on societal issues, create informational content on sustainability and spread awareness to other people. In my spare time, I love bouldering (indoors), as well as getting outdoors as much as possible, whether it’s a walk in the nature, a long bike ride, snowboarding in winter, photography or going for a run at the end of the day. “Things do not change; we change”. - Henry David Thoreau

As we delve deeper into the technological era, the term ‘Smart city’ is becoming much more relevant for sustainable urban management. But what exactly are Smart cities and are they the magical bullet to our society’s sustainability problem?

A common misconception about Smart cities is that they are frequently understood as having a sole emphasis on technological innovation. However, a Smart city can be defined as including the following features: smart technological innovation (i.e. data collection devices for water resource management), on human resource innovation (i.e. smart/high skilled peopled) and on governance innovation (smart collaborations involving various actors and participation of citizens). In other words, smart cities involve using ICT technologies to make our cities more sustainable, but how ethical is it?

Despite their success, Smart cities are commonly critiqued as putting too much focus on technology development and not enough attention to the direct problems of citizens in urban areas.

Firstly in terms of an analyst, there is the debate of qualitative versus quantitative data. We cannot treat human judgment as a solely quantifiable matter. Quantitative information provides an excellent insight into the happenings in society; nevertheless urban planners must ultimately talk to local citizens before making relevant decisions. Barcelona is an outstanding example of a city that has already made a shift towards a participatory democratic version of a smart city; Decidim. Barcelona is an open-source digital and democratic platform allowing citizens to contribute in the decision making of the future of the city.

Secondly there are huge ethical concerns; as data-collection remains the most important tool for smart cities, it makes me wonder: who will ‘control’ the city? Colossal data companies such as Facebook and Google currently have revenues similar to certain countries’ GDP, if not more in certain cases. And if we consider the vast amount of data possessed by these companies, one can only wonder how much power and influence they have over governments, citizens and society as a whole. Such companies are currently jeopardizing our online privacy, but what if our entire life was monitored and the data published publicly? Is it still possible to remain anonymous within a smart city.

The city of Toronto recently aborted their Google-backed plans for a Smart city, towards a focus on a people-centered vision. Initially, it was planned for Sidewalk Labs to make Toronto one of the first fully Smart cities in the world with cameras, monitors and data collection device on every corner of the city. However, skeptical approaches highlighted privacy and ethical concerns, shifting the city’s focus towards sustainability, affordability, community integration, social cohesion, and environmentally friendly- and low carbon designs. This will allow for the community to be built on social and environmental foundations, rather than “from the internet up” as stated by Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada during the initial Sidewalk Labs press conference in 2017

Overall, Smart cities can be a resourceful tool if used with thought and care, as technological innovation alone is not the magical bullet to society’s problems. On the contrary, as a tool for sustainable development, I support Smart cities, however, the focus should remain on problems and their roots, rather than solutions that temporarily mask issues. It needs to be a top-down and bottom-up collaboration from citizens, companies, governments, academics and researchers to devise the best solutions and innovations that are the most beneficial for nature and the well being of humans.
 

Hi there! My name is Teodora and I am very passionate about sustainability as I think that a lot of human-related activities cause profound environmental concerns as well as associated underlying social, political and economical issues. I am currently doing my Master’s Degree in Romania in the Protection of Natural and Anthropogenic Environments and I have a background in Law and Environmental Engineering. By writing at LUGO, I am willing to share my ideas and knowledge on how to create a greener and more sustainable world. So stay put for quick tips or facts about your relationship with nature.

Ecological footprint – are we in debt to nature or not?

Have you ever wondered what is the actual impact that we as humans have on the environment? Well, the ecological footprint is a tool designed exactly to answer that question and to assess the pressure our lifestyle is causing to the planet. In simple terms, the ecological footprint measures how fast we consume resources and generate waste compared to how fast nature can absorb our waste and generate new resources. 

Every one of us has an ecological footprint. It can be calculated for a person, a family, a business, a city or a country. Things like food, energy, transportation, goods & services contribute to our ecological footprint. Bad news is that the things we consume and cause the most damage to our planet happen to be the things that we enjoy the most. I suppose they are called guilty pleasures for a reason.

For example, chocolate production has a huge impact on soil, air and water quality. It takes an astonishing 1700 liters of water to make a typical 100 chocolate bar. That's about ten bathtubs of water for one bar of chocolate.  

Animal products: The livestock sector, which raises cows, pigs and chickens is responsible for using a significant amount of natural resources and releases high levels of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. But ooh (I admit), it’s hard to cut those chicken wings out of a Friday night-out with friends or that beef steak that you order on a Saturday evening.

Palm oil – it’s an ingredient found in everything from bread, potato chips and ice cream to store-bought cookies, soap and even lipsticks, BUT is one of the world’s leading causes of deforestation. According to the World Wildlife Fund, the crop offers a far greater yield at a lower cost of production than any other vegetable oil, which is why it’s so widely used. And because of that, the global expansion of palm oil plantations is at the expense of many tropical rainforests.

If you start to get curious about the impact of your own way of living, try assessing your own ecological footprint here: https://www.footprintcalculator.org/. If you want to see what is your footprint specifically of water consumption try using this tool: https://www.watercalculator.org/.
Knowing where you stand and how many resources you consume is definitely useful, but the most important thing would rather be to take action. It doesn’t require a total overhaul of your life, but following a few simple steps can help you start consuming less:

Choose quality over quantity, especially when it comes to fashion. Try to pick things that are made to last, buy clothes less often and only if you need them.  And when you are done, consider selling, donating or swapping them, instead of throwing them away. I know it’s hard, especially when you see all those discounts online and you end up with 5 items in your bucket that you did not even know that you need (I have also been there)!

Buy organic - support organically grown crops and avoid artificial fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms. These are chemical substances that disrupt the balance of the ecosystem and cause profound damage to nature. Buying organic means you encourage farming practices that understand and are conscious of the effects agriculture has on an ecosystem.

Eat whole foods – try to avoid processed food and meat while starting to eat more fruits, vegetables and cereals. The ecological footprint of whole foods is lower because it only uses resources that they need in order to grow.  Processed foods require additional resources (water and energy) for preparing, manufacturing and packaging materials. 

Buy local - There are many reasons to eat locally, but let’s start with distance. When you eat locally, you are cutting back on the necessity of more resources including the ones consumed with transport (less oil and gas to ship the food from one country to another). Buying from local stores also ensures that your food hasn't been refrigerated for hours or even days, which also produces mass amounts of greenhouse gasses. Plus, local foods promote a safer food supply. The more steps there are between you and your food's source the more resources are used and the more damage is done to nature.

Truth is, we all have been ignoring these facts for years, but now that we are in the middle of a climate crisis, it’s hard to pretend we don’t have a huge responsibility. So next time you put that product in the shopping cart, you might think twice about its sustainability. We owe it to mother-nature.

My name is Annemiek and I am a student of the MSc Governance of Sustainability with a background in International Studies. I am mostly studying how to bridge the gap between academia and real-world policies in the field of sustainability, which is as cool as it sounds! In my free time I like to go for walks, read books, and... write. With this column I aim to share some insights into the exciting, interesting, and (sometimes) wonderfully weird things the earth has to offer, and the governance issues related to that.

When the results of the Dutch elections were first announced, I was surprised. Maybe it’s naive, but I didn’t expect such a big loss for the left-wing parties. I knew that some parties were gaining ground at the expense of others, and I knew that the general sentiment in the Netherlands is becoming more polarised, but all my friends were voting left, there was a big climate protest the weekend before we could vote, and my LinkedIn feed was full of likes for “climate candidates”. So, what happened?

I’m living in a sustainability bubble, and it’s not representative of reality.

Much attention has been paid to algorithms influencing your social media – deciding what you see and hear – and how one worldview can repeat itself over and over until it sticks in your brain as the one and only truth. It’s easy to see the dangers of such a worldview. Arjen Lubach recently described this problem through the metaphor of going into the supermarket and only seeing crisps and Red Bull and not knowing that there are other types of (healthier) food, too. Lubach used this metaphor in the context of conspiracy theories – the “bad guys” not being open for alternative views and just sticking to what they believe in. 

Am I any different? 

I like to think I am well-informed. I read the news, I go to university, I base my knowledge off of multiple sources. But am I really as open-minded as I think I am? When people disagree, do I listen to their arguments? Do I even look for people who disagree, or am I perfectly comfortable where I am – sitting silently in my big bubble of sustainability students?

At the climate alarm there was a guy who was against climate policies. Yet his sign said: "Change my mind". People were pointing at him and whispering how odd it was that he was crashing the climate protest. But if it’s true what his sign read – “Change my mind” – maybe we should be a bit more like him. 

Not to say that we should neglect climate issues and become conspiracy theorists. But maybe we should open up a bit more to people who are unlike us – younger people, older people, people who vote for different parties, people who have a different background, people who believe in different futures. Not to necessarily take on their ideas, but to be aware of contrary opinions and to try to understand where they are coming from. And to find common ground. Because it’s there, and it’s valuable.

Hello everyone, my name is Sebastian Moorhead and I am currently a second year Urban Studies student at Leiden University. Ever-growing cities are becoming a huge concern, especially in terms of sustainability, which is why I have decided to study my chosen program: to understand the causes, to find solutions and to share knowledge. By working with LUGO as a blogger, I wish to gain a deeper understanding on societal issues, create informational content on sustainability and spread awareness to other people. In my spare time, I love bouldering (indoors), as well as getting outdoors as much as possible, whether it’s a walk in the nature, a long bike ride, snowboarding in winter, photography or going for a run at the end of the day. “Things do not change; we change”. - Henry David Thoreau

“When is it going to end?” – is a question we all ask ourselves.

Our lives have been retransformed since the WHO announced the Covid-19 outbreak last March. For me, besides the direct effects such as the transition of university lectures to an online setting or the closure of sports facilities, the time spent under lockdown has renovated the way I choose to live, and for the better!

Before Covid-19, juggling my time schedule between university classes and work, often meant that I chose any quick lunch I could find on-the-go. Nowadays, with the majority of my day spent at home, I have time to cook fresh again! Yay!

I find myself more attentive to the nutrients that I am consuming. Accordingly, I have taken a much more critical approach when buying food by bearing in mind its source and environmental impact. And apparently, I’m not the only one!

A report by the IRi states that supermarkets in the Netherlands are putting more emphasis on sustainable foods and it has proven successful! The turnover for sustainable products increased by 15% in the first half of 2020. Dutch supermarkets are progressively opting for a replacement strategy says the IRi. In other words, regular products without a quality score are replaced by products with a quality score, such as Fair Trade, UTZ, PlanetProof. This simple, yet clever strategy forces consumers to ultimately shop sustainably, bringing us one step closer towards a collective consciousness in protecting our planet and future. 

While we impatiently await the return of normal life without a lockdown, we need to take action not to go back to certain old habits. The world is evolving and we are living a ‘Kodak Moment’, as mentioned by Rebecca Henderson, professor of Economics at the Harvard Business School. Eastman Kodak is an example of a company that went bankrupt due to its failure to foresee changes in the market. Similarly, if we do not acknowledge the problems in our food industry, sooner or later, consequences will be suffered environmentally, economically and socially.

We must recognize the Covid-19 crisis as “an opportunity of regeneration and fresh thinking” states Henderson. She also notes that to prevent society from suffering a Kodak moment, innovation and re-imagination will develop new products and services to create prosperity without negative externalities. As usual, the Dutch are one step ahead in sustainable planning, governance and policy-making. Correspondingly, the European Commission’s  “Farm to Fork” strategy will ensure more sustainable food systems across Europe, in accordance with the European Green Deal 2020.

Finally, here are four simple steps you can take to achieve the greatest environmental benefit with your food, according to the Stichting Voedingscentrum Nederland:
•    Waste less food
•    Eat less meat and more sources of plant-based proteins, such as legumes and nuts
•    Only eat what you need
•    Replace alcohol, fruit juices and soft drinks with tap water, tea and/or coffee. 
 

My name is Annemiek and I am a student of the MSc Governance of Sustainability with a background in International Studies. I am mostly studying how to bridge the gap between academia and real-world policies in the field of sustainability, which is as cool as it sounds! In my free time I like to go for walks, read books, and... write. With this column I aim to share some insights into the exciting, interesting, and (sometimes) wonderfully weird things the earth has to offer, and the governance issues related to that.

I enjoy the warm February days, am I still worthy of studying sustainability?

“And since we’ve no place to go, let it snow let it snow let it snow.”

For the first time since the lockdown in December, we did not need a place to go. Just looking out our windows was enough. Just seeing other people, up to their knees in snow, big smiles on their faces, made us feel connected again. It was like a white blanket, covering the country, calming us down. 

A week, six snowball fights, eleven pairs of extra socks, and twenty-three cups of hot chocolate later, the temperatures switched from -10 °C to +17 °C and the snow made way for snowdrops. Roadsides coloured green, white, yellow, and purple. 

Happy me said: “Look at this amazing weather!”
My sustainability brain said: “Climate change.”

Sometimes it would be nice to turn off that brain and simply enjoy the warm sun. But I can’t help it – and I’m not the only one. Feelings of anxiety and guilt after enjoying abnormally high temperatures are becoming more and more common. It’s like we’re doing our best not to be happy: When it’s cold, we wish it were warm, when it’s warm, we feel guilty for enjoying it, and when it cools down again, we regret not enjoying the warm weather while it lasted. Talk about senseless self-destruction… 

Despite this feeling of guilt, it is common to enjoy warmer weather. In countries like the Netherlands, the changing climate is generally perceived as a switch to more ‘pleasant’ weather, especially during the much milder winter months. The Netherlands is not alone in this sentiment. A study on American perceptions of increasing temperatures showed that because the perceived benefits of mild winters are not yet offset by big inconveniences of hotter summers, changing weather patterns are a poor source of motivation for Americans to demand policy responses to climate change. 

In other words, we enjoy the weather, we feel guilty, but we do not take action. Sounds like a win/lose/lose situation. It is essential to get rid of the guilt and turn to action. Maybe our climate focus should not be on the breaking of daily temperature records (“Aaah today was the hottest February day ever measured, I should not have enjoyed that ice cream”), but rather on the overall trends that show that the past ten years were the warmest decade on record (“Aaah the planet is warming and we should do something about that!’)

Since we’ve no place to go… 

My name is Annemiek and I am a student of the MSc Governance of Sustainability with a background in International Studies. I am mostly studying how to bridge the gap between academia and real-world policies in the field of sustainability, which is as cool as it sounds! In my free time I like to go for walks, read books, and... write. With this column I aim to share some insights into the exciting, interesting, and (sometimes) wonderfully weird things the earth has to offer, and the governance issues related to that.

I recently had a fight with a classmate over who was to do research on invasive species (organisms that are brought into a new habitat and then harm the environment). There was only room for one of us, and the other would be stuck with climate change. Mature as we are, we decided to resolve our dispute with a good old game of rock, paper, scissors. I chose rock, he picked paper. Naturally, I tried the famous “best of three!” defence, but of course it wouldn’t do. Not only did I miss out on invasive species, but my classmate also put me on the spot by pointing out that it’s stupid to not use paper on the first go because it’s a well-known fact that most people choose rock in their first game. I’m guessing it’s a cultural thing: most Dutchies I know are scissors-people. Whatever the science behind the game, it wouldn’t do anything for me now. I comforted myself by saying that everything is interrelated and I started researching climate change.

Although I was supposed to be analysing climate change’s impact on biodiversity loss in Spain, my research soon steered me away from Spain, into the Paris Climate Agreement, to Joe Biden’s first signatures as President, to his cancellation of the licenses of Keystone XL. The Keystone Pipeline System is an oil pipeline system from Canada to the United States and has been the topic of debate for more than a decade. Environmental organisations are worried that the system intensifies our dependence on the fossil fuel industry and argue that it leads to increased greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and oil leakage and spills resulting in biodiversity loss.

Now, I must admit I don’t quite understand the name of the project. It was probably aimed at sounding like it’s the most important, central line in the fossil fuel system. In a way, that definition is similar to keystone species, which are organisms that have a disproportionately large effect on their ecosystem, relative to their abundance. Examples include sea stars who are preying on mussels that would otherwise dominate the ecosystem and drive out other species. The Keystone XL sounds more like an Invasive XL: something that is not at the centre of everything, but rather an industry that has escaped from its boundaries and is now threatening the environment and driving out other industries (i.e., sustainable energy). President Biden thought the same and revoked the permits on his first day in office. 

That’s where my research sidetrack ended: Biden brought me back to Paris, which brought me back to climate and Spain. In the end I got what I wanted: I did research on invasive “species”. Only I didn’t get academic credit for it and my group was still waiting for me to submit my climate change findings. Next time we’re settling disputes over a game, I’m not picking keystone. Unless it’s against a Dutchie. 

My name is Annemiek and I am a student of the MSc Governance of Sustainability with a background in International Studies. I am mostly studying how to bridge the gap between academia and real-world policies in the field of sustainability, which is as cool as it sounds! In my free time I like to go for walks, read books, and... write. With this column I aim to share some insights into the exciting, interesting, and (sometimes) wonderfully weird things the earth has to offer, and the governance issues related to that.

Bias, backbones, and biodiversity – how slugs and other invertebrates are neglected in the popularity contest of biodiversity conservation

“Slugs are not [as] ‘sexy’ as the Iberian lynx or the imperial eagle.”

No, this is not a statement by a stuffy biology teacher trying to make his classes appealing to a bunch of fifteen-year-olds. It is an actual quotation taken straight from a European Commission Life Team report on the challenges of biodiversity conservation. And when the EC starts using words like ‘sexy’, you know they’re desperately trying to get people’s attention.

“All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” - George Orwell said in 1945 - and though the context in which he wrote this was slightly different than mine, it also rings true in the field of conservation biology. There is a taxonomic bias: an overrepresentation of some species in research at the cost of others. Regardless of their risk of extinction, allocation of funding and projects is highly biased towards mammals and birds; with investment per species towards vertebrates being 468 times higher than that of invertebrates. All animals are equal, as long as they are pretty, charismatic, or pretty charismatic. 

And it makes sense, right? That scientists are interested in researching brown bears, wolves, bitterns, and lynxes. And that people are willing to put their money towards research on those “sexy beasts”, as the Guardian likes to put it. It is easy for us to understand why these species are relevant and it brings a sense of excitement to the conservation table.

Yet by blindly following our furry bias, we miss out on the research and protection of millions of invertebrate species that are crucial to life on earth. We need to get rid of this favouritism. They may not be charismatic in the old-fashioned sense of the word, but being responsible for vital ecosystem functions makes you pretty cool - or at least worth the effort of protecting.

And to get attention to this issue, the EC is trying to glamourise its reports by adding such statements on the sexiness of slugs. But maybe it’s time to stop comparing apples and oranges, eagles and slugs - and to start appreciating invertebrates for what they are. They may not have a backbone, but then again, who are we to talk if we don’t take action to fight biodiversity loss?

PS: Don’t believe everything the EC tells you. Slugs are actually fairly interesting, romantic creatures and even “quite extraordinary and … almost beyond imagining” in the words of Sir David Attenborough (so it must be true).

Hello everyone, my name is Sebastian Moorhead and I am currently a second year Urban Studies student at Leiden University. Ever-growing cities are becoming a huge concern, especially in terms of sustainability, which is why I have decided to study my chosen program: to understand the causes, to find solutions and to share knowledge. By working with LUGO as a blogger, I wish to gain a deeper understanding on societal issues, create informational content on sustainability and spread awareness to other people. In my spare time, I love bouldering (indoors), as well as getting outdoors as much as possible, whether it’s a walk in the nature, a long bike ride, snowboarding in winter, photography or going for a run at the end of the day. “Things do not change; we change”. - Henry David Thoreau

The Circular Economy: Every Little Helps 

Today, roughly 55% of the total population lives in urban areas. The UN estimates these numbers will increase to 68% by 2050. Unfortunately, these massive changes will come along with much negative consequences, especially in terms of sustainability if we don’t change our traditional societal methods. This is why I have decided to follow my studies in BA Urban Studies at Universiteit Leiden: to study and consequently apply systems that contribute to a sustainable environment in our ever-growing human society.

The traditional economic model is the established linear economy. It refers to a system whereby raw materials are: mined by society, manufactured, processed then consumed and subsequently thrown away after use. In other words, the linear economy follows a model of ‘take, make, use, dispose and pollute’. This is extremely unsustainable. Society is using up the earth’s natural resources without future considerations. Natural resources, of finite amounts, are being used to produce disposable goods, which typically end up in landfills or incineration plants. 

The UN estimates that 300 million tons of plastic waste is produced yearly – that’s almost equal to the weight of the entire human population!

The solution to such a problem is to move towards a circular economy. This refers to an economic system of closed loops in which raw materials, components and products retain value as well as utilising renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. According to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation the concept is based on three principles: “1) design out waste and pollution, 2) keep products and materials in use, and 3) regenerate natural systems” (see figure below). 

Overall, the complexities of the circular economy involve changing society’s norms and standardized processes. Nonetheless, it is becoming more relevant in contemporary world solutions as practitioners, business and policy-makers have fortunately created and implemented such models. The general population will also have to do its part, though this will involve changing certain lifestyle habits. Fortunately, it can be as simple as collectively refusing certain products or materials, like plastic packaging. 
Every little helps and you can make a big difference by employing simple sustainable lifestyle habits. Start by implementing the 3 Rs in your daily life – Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Follow them in that order: 

  • Buy less, e.g. reduce waste and carbon footprint by optimally buying local food products with no plastic packaging. 
  • Reuse anything that is still utilisable.
  • Recycle everything as much as possible to give the materials a renewed life. 
My name is Hedda. I am a third-year psychology bachelor student, passionate about nature, the ocean, and surfing. Seeing the devastating impact, we have on our environment pushes me to take action towards a sustainable change. Through my study program, I learned a lot about the ins and out of human behavior. What determines our attitudes, behavior as interaction with the environment, and how they are influenced. I started to get interested in how we can link this knowledge to change our impact on nature and create a sustainable way of living. Writing for LUGO I like to look at nature, climate, and sustainability related topics from a psychological perspective.

Lets talk about Eco-anxiety

It´s Sunday evening. Movie night with my housemates. We decided to watch “A live on our planet” by David Attenborough. The message is clear, we are responsible for the climate crisis and it is on us to fix it. I feel the tears burning in my eyes. I feel extremely sad, frustrated and helpless. From the faces of my housemates I can tell, I am not alone with my feelings.

The American Psychology Association describes reactions and feelings like these as Eco-anxiety. A source of distress caused by “watching the slow and seemingly irrevocable impacts of climate change unfold, and worrying about the future of oneself, children and later generations”. A specific diagnosis of eco-anxiety does not exist but research shows that symptoms include feelings of anxiety, loss, helplessness, frustration, obsession, burnout and depression.

Eco-anxiety is manly experienced by individuals that faced traumatic climate events at first hand or scientist dealing with the issue daily. However, current media awareness to the topic shows that young people increasingly experience eco-anxiety.

So, is the climate crisis making us mentally ill?

No, says Caroline Hickman a climate psychologist from the university of bath. “A measure of mental health is having the capacity to accurately emotionally respond to the reality in our world. So, it’s not delusional to feel anxious or depressed.” Hickman says.

Problematic is, people want to avoid information or experiences that are overwhelmingly difficult, disturbing or make us to feel anxious. Doing so could hinder people from engaging in the topic and fighting the climate crisis.

It therefore sounds counterintuitive that accepting and expressing feelings of eco-anxiety are the first step to tackle it. Research on other types of anxiety have shown that people who accept their feelings, take a more positive and active approach to deal with the trigger of their anxiety. 

 

 

 

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