When, how and why were NGOs successful in influencing European refugee policy between 1914 and 2014? That is the main question of my PhD research project. I look at the history of NGOs and their effectiveness over time. My PhD project will show why they were successful during certain times, and why not during others. The outcomes of my research will be relevant to current academic debate about policy change
and the role of NGOs and civil society, and will help NGOs optimise the effect of their activities.