Universiteit Leiden

nl en

Ineke Smit

Dr. C.E. Smit
+31 71 527 2727

PhD research

Roman-Catholic reactions to Protestant 'moderns' in the Netherlands, 1840-1870

Supervisors: prof. E.G.E. van der Wall, Dr. J.W. Buisman

Research question

What representations of Protestant moderns by Roman Catholics, and vice versa, are reflected in 19th-century ‘casual’ media published between 1840 and 1870? Do these in any way confirm mainstream historiography, or are there surprising new viewpoints?

I investigate this question on the basis of the contemporary ‘paper war’ as reflected in the collection of theological brochures in the Leiden University Library. Part of the dissertation is a reasoned catalogue of some 520 relevant titles in the collection, which I compiled as a Fellow at the Scaliger Institute between 2004 and 2006.


What image did the Protestant moderns have of the Roman Catholics? And vice versa? What factors determined these images?  In how far did the Protestant-modern appeal for free inquiry into all matters religious have repercussions for the attitude towards ‘Rome’?

The main focus of my research is on the external aspects of the discussions, i.e., the polemic methods used by both parties. This includes aspects of rhetoric, for instance the question of how history is being deployed in the discussion – what are the attitudes regarding the Middle Ages? The Enlightenment?

For the sake of manageability the research project focuses on three case studies: Roman-Catholic reactions to the modern Opzoomer's inaugural lecture of 1846, the controversy between the Jesuit Frentrop and the notorious modern protestant Zaalberg in 1855-1857, and the discussions around 1865 on the question whether protestant modern ministers could remain in the Dutch Reformed Church.


Contemporary pamphlets ('brochures'), highly popular communication media in de 19th and early 20th century.

Unique selling point

This study was initially started as part of the joint Leiden-Louvain research project on Protestant and Roman-Catholic modernism. Its unique contribution is that the two main religious confessions active in the Netherlands in the 19th century are discussed together, in a context that may throw new light on interesting questions around the theme of ‘religion and modern culture’ and so links up with current events.


1995-2003 Theology, Leiden University ( cum laude)
1969-1978 English language and literature, second subject Information science, Leiden University
1968-1969 Exchange student at Duke University, North Carolina, USA
1962-1968 Gymnasium Haganum, The Hague (diploma gymnasium a)


Work experience

April 1992-present Free-lance translator/editor, areas of expertise: statistics, theology, philosophy, psychology, public administration, political science, cultural anthropology, Hebrew literature.
Nov 2006-
Nov 2014
Instructor of Academic English at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University
1 January 2004-
Sept. 2006
Fellow at the Scaliger Institute (Leiden University Library) for the project ‘Christianity and Modernity’
1 Dec. 2002-
1 Dec. 2005
Temporary appointment as project staff with the History of Christianity section at the (then) Faculty of Theology, Leiden University. Besides research this position also entailed developing and teaching courses at post-Bachelor level; organising workshops and conferences; coaching students and colleagues in English-language presentations.
April 1992
Co-owner of Smit & Dreef Texts & Translations, Leiden. Translations in the area of software and automation; clients included Hewlett-Packard, WordPerfect, Lotus.
1979-1985 Free-lance translator/editor
1979-1984 Editor, VanDale Groot Woordenboek Engels-Nederlands
1975-1979 Teacher of English, Gymnasium Haganum, The Hague
1974-1975 Teacher of English, Dalton Lyceum, The Hague



Published translations

  • Fokkelman, J. P. (1998). Major poems of the Hebrew Bible. (Vol.I: Ex.15, Deut. 32, and Job 3. At the interface of hermeneutics and structural analysis). Assen: Van Gorcum.

  • Fokkelman, J. P. (1999). Reading biblical narrative. An introductory guide. Leiderdorp/Louisville: Deo Publishing/Westminster John Knox Press.

  • Fokkelman, J. P. (2000). Major poems of the Hebrew bible (Vol. II: 85 Psalms and Job 4-14). Assen: Van Gorcum.

  • Fokkelman, J. P. (2001). Reading biblical poetry. An introductory guide. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

  • Fokkelman, J. P. (2003). Major poems of the Hebrew bible. (Vol. III: The remaining 65 psalms). Assen: Van Gorcum.

  • Fokkelman, J. P. (2004). Major poems of the Hebrew bible. (Vol. IV: Job 15-42). Assen: Van Gorcum.

  • Janse, W. (2004). The Protestant Reformation in the Low Countries: Developments in twentieth-century historiography. Reformation & Renaissance Review: Journal of the Society for Reformation Studies, 6, 179-202.

  • Janse, W. (2005). Reformed antisocinianism in northern Germany: Ludwig Crocius' Antisocinismus Contractus of 1639. Perichoresis. The Journal of Emanuel University of Oradea, 3, 1-13.

  • Janse, W. (2006). Reformed theological education at the Bremen Gymnasium Illustre. In H. J. Selderhuis & M. Wriedt (Hrsg.), Bildung und Konfession. Theologenausbildung im Zeitalter der Konfessionalisierung [Spätmittelalter und Reformation. Neue Reihe 27] (pp. 31-49). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  • Venema, G. J. (2003). Reading Scripture in the Old Testament. Leiden: Brill.


  • Mooij, J. D. de, & Smit, Ineke (red.) (2001). Balans van een eeuw, Wendingen in de historiografie van het christendom 1901-2001. Heerenveen: Groen.

  • Mooij, J. D. de, & Smit, Ineke (2001). Semper sit secretum. Het kerkhistorisch gezelschap S.S.S. 1901-2001. In J. D. de Mooij & C. E. Smit (Red.), Balans van een eeuw, Wendingen in de historiografie van het christendom 1901-2001 (pp. 11-32). Heerenveen: Groen.

  • Mikker, Tom, & Smit, Ineke (red.) (2006), Tussen Augustinus en atheisme, Kerkhistorsiche Studien

  • Smit, Ineke (2004). Recensie van Slis, P. L., L.W.E. Rauwenhoff (1828-1889). Apologeet van het modernisme. Predikant, kerkhistoricus en godsdienstfilosoof. Dutch Review of Church History, 84, 645-647.

  • Smit, Ineke (2005). Recensie van Kelly, J. J. The Letters of Baron Friedrich von Hügel and Maude D. Petre: The Modernist Movement in England. Dutch Review of Church History, 85, 554-556.

  • Smit, Ineke (2006). Reasonable and Reverent. The critical orthodoxy of Charles Gore and Lux Mundi. Publicatieserie Stichting Oud-Katholiek Seminarie, Amersfoort/Sliedrecht: Merweboek.

  • Smit, Ineke (2006) Recensie van De Coninck, P. Een les uit Pruisen. Nederland en de Kulturkampf, 1870-1880].Dutch Review of Church History, 86.

  • Smit, Ineke, “De moderne theoloog stelt zich hier aan als een kleine paus. De polemiek tussen protestantse modernen en rooms-katholieken, 1865-1870’, in: Tussen Augustinus en atheisme, Kerkhistorische Studien 2006, 109-123

  • Smit, Ineke (2007) , ‘Een treurig en heilloos familie-proces’, in: Aangeraakt. Boeken in contact met hun lezers, UB Leiden, 213-224

  • Smit, Ineke, 'Een familiegaerij anno 1900. Houdingen tegenover het geloof in Max van Ravesteins Bij Ons, in:  Zoekende zielen. Religie en literatuur in het fin-de-siècle, Leiden 2018, 35-47.

  • Faculty of Humanities
  • Leiden Institute for Area Studies
  • LUCSoR


  • Opgenomen in intern register

This website uses cookies. More information