International Institute of Air and Space Law
The International Institute of Air and Space Law, founded in 1985, collaborates with many world-class academic institutions.
It maintains close contacts with national and international organisations and businessesworldwide. The Institute is guided by a prestigious International Advisory Board.
Academic attention for the Institute's subject are commenced as early as 1938, when Professor Daniel Goedhuis was appointed to lecture on air law. A professorial chair in air law was created in 1947 and was extended in its scope to include space law in 1961. Professor Goedhuis held this chair until 1977. His successor Professor Henri Wassenbergh who passed away on 1 February 2014 was the catalyst behind the creation of the current Institute of Air and Space Law.
Traditionally, air law research deals with analysing the Chicago Convention, bilateral air agreements, and international aviation conventions in the field of safety, security and liability.
In the course of the 1980s, the US deregulation process and the liberalisation programme of the European Community had a significant impact on air law research.
In the 1990s, the relevance of environmental law also began to become more visible in developments in air law.
Air law in the 21st century now receives important input from concerns for security, and initiatives designed to streamline aviation operations from an economic point of view in the light of the state of the industry. Also, law and policy makers are paying an increasing amount of attention to the establishment of a safe, efficient and environmentally friendly infrastructure for air transport.
The main subject areas concern:
- economic regulation of air transport, including the application of competition regimes;
- bilateral and multilateral relations between states;
- European Community air law and policy;
- nationality criteria for airlines;
- deregulation and liberalisation of air services;
- aviation liability in an international context;
- dispute settlement;
- privatisation of infrastructure;
- safety and security;
- national civil law;
- environmental issues.
Originally, space law was part of, and based upon, international public law. States played an exclusive role in the development of space activities and space law, which is evidenced by United Nations Treaties and resolutions on outer space.
The main actors are intergovernmental organisations such as the European Space Agency (ESA) and the United Nations Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), in addition to specialised satellite organisations and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
In recent decades, space activities have increasingly become commercial activities, through the use of satellites in outer space and the exploration of the moon and celestial bodies. As shown by, for example, the website of Space and Society, established by ESA and the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) and illustrating the impact of space activities upon society, outer space has come down to earth – and so has space law. Private entities, using space know-how, software, hardware and services, are becoming important investors in space activities so that space law now encompasses other legal regimes.
Hence, the following fields of law affect the development of space law:
- private law, including contractual and third party liability;
- financing, insurance and securities law;
- environmental law;
- social and labour law;
- intellectual property rights law;
- database and data protection law;
- commercial, trade and economic law;
- competition law.
Space law research consequently covers the following subject areas:
- national and international space law and policy;
- privatisation of space activities;
- satellite communications/GNSS and Galileo;
- radio astronomy;
- earth observation;
- the legal status of the moon.
International Advisory Board
The International Advisory Board is comprised of international members who are professionally actively engaged in the further development of aviation and space-related activities. The members of the International Advisory Board advise the staff of the International Institute of Air and Space Law in the performance of their tasks and activities. The IAB meets at least once per year.